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Co-immobilization of (2,2'-bipyridyl) (pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)-rhodium complex and NAD-dependent dehydrogenases for enzymatic electrosynthesis

Abstract : In this work we developed methods for the co-immobilization of NAD-dependent dehydrogenases and the (2,2'-bipyridyl) (pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)-rhodium complex ([Cp*Rh(bpy)Cl]+) on porous carbon electrodes for application in the electroenzymatic synthesis of chiral alcohols and sugars. The goal was to avoid the degradation of the enzymatic activity coming from the interaction of functional groups from the enzyme surface (eg.-SH, -NH2) with [Cp*Rh(bpy)Cl]+ and to promote the recyclability of the catalyst. Diazonium electrografting was used to introduce alkene and azide groups on a carbon surface (flat glassy carbon, porous carbon felt or carbon nanotubes layers). Thiol-ene click chemistry was applied to bind a D-sorbitol dehydrogenase with cysteine tags (either 1 or 2 cysteine moieties at the N terminus of the polypeptide chain) onto carbon electrodes. Azide-alkyne Huisgen cyclo-addition reaction was used to bind an alkyne-modified [Cp*Rh(bpy)Cl]+. Then co-immobilization of the redox enzymes (D-sorbitol and galactitol dehydrogenase) with the complex [Cp*Rh(bpy)Cl]+ was tested by encapsulation of the proteins in a silica gel layer, inside a rhodium-functionalized porous carbon felt. The immobilized [Cp*Rh(bpy)Cl]+ was stable over weeks for NADH regeneration, but this electrode architecture led to the inhibition of the enzymatic activity, possibly because of the local environment (increase of pH and product accumulation in the porous electrode). The combination of ‘thiol-ene’ and Huisgen cyclo-addition was then investigated for sequential immobilization of [Cp*Rh(bpy)Cl]+ and cysteine-tagged D-sorbitol dehydrogenase on an azide-alkene bi-functionalized electrode. Finally, considering the different lifetime of enzymes and [Cp*Rh(bpy)Cl]+ catalyst, and the need for a better separation of these elements from the bioelectrochemical system, the best configuration was achieved by associating a porous silica layer with the immobilized enzyme with a bucky paper of carbon nanotubes functionalized with [Cp*Rh(bpy)Cl]+. The reusability of this functionalized electrode was proved and the designed bioelectrode was successfully applied to a bioelectrochemical conversion of D-fructose to D-sorbitol
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Lin Zhang. Co-immobilization of (2,2'-bipyridyl) (pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)-rhodium complex and NAD-dependent dehydrogenases for enzymatic electrosynthesis. Organic chemistry. Université de Lorraine, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016LORR0283⟩. ⟨tel-01665493⟩

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