De briques et de blocs. La fonction éditoriale des interfaces de programmation (API) web : entre science combinatoire et industrie du texte.

Abstract : « Like » buttons, embedded tweets… All of these visual forms are produced by Application Programming Interfaces (APIs). APIs are digital writing tools which have become part of the publishing process of contemporary web pages. This thesis aims at understanding the « publishing function » of APIs : their role in the production, standardization and circulation of the « little forms » of online texts. Focused on Facebook’s and Twitter’s APIs, our work is divided into five chapters. The first one is a genealogy of the APIs, starting from their combinatorial aspect, a conception of writing which trace back to early programming and the invention of computer science. The second chapter is an inquiry about the imaginaries of calculus as a kind of writing, torn between the imaginary of numbers, of combinatorics and the search for a universal scientific method. The third chapter is a study of the semiotic consequences of this combinatorial universalism. We show how APIs are based on an idea of text as an abstract, modular object. This abstraction of the text is beneficial to an « economy of passages ». In this economy where circulation produce value, APIs are a place of « literate practices » (chapter four). They establish visual standards for the readability, production and circulation of online texts. Among these standards, there’s a systematic invizibilisation of the action of machines, although calculus is a necessary part of the production of digital texts. Therefore, in the fifth chapter, we give some epistemological elements towards non-anthropocentric semiotics, meaning : semiotics which would take into account computational machines as a part of the utterance of digital texts.
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Submitted on : Friday, December 15, 2017 - 6:59:52 PM
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Samuel Goyet. De briques et de blocs. La fonction éditoriale des interfaces de programmation (API) web : entre science combinatoire et industrie du texte.. Sciences de l'information et de la communication. Paris IV Sorbonne, 2017. Français. ⟨tel-01665406⟩

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