Electrolytes aux interfaces : accès aux premiers nanomètres par la technique des ondes stationnaires.

Abstract : The distribution of ions and charges at solid-water interfaces is of key importance in a number of phenomena and processes. In particular the development of microfluidics has strengthened the need for understanding and controlling ion distributions in the electric double layer. Indeed, phenomena occurring within the diffuse Gouy-Chapman layer become dominant in determining flow properties as channel size become on the same order of magnitude of the Debye length. In this thesis, we used the technique of X-ray standing waves to determine the distribution of interfacial ions. We have developed cells with thicknesses of a few hundred nanometers or less, precisely measured by X-ray reflectivity. The liquid film is confined between the multilayer which create the standing wave and a polymer film. The ion fluorescence allows to determine the interfacial distribution with a spatial resolution of a few Angstroms. This work was carried out for solutions containing different mixtures of monovalent ions (chloride, potassium, cesium and iodine) at several concentrations.In the second part of this work, we present the results for lanthanide chlorides. These studies have allowed us to determine the composition of the Stern layer and the distribution of ions in this layer for all pairs La3+/Ce3+, La3+/Eu3+, La3+/Gd3+, Ce3+/Eu3+, Ce3+/Gd3+ et Eu3+/Gd3+. We could then classify these ions and discuss the series.
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Soumaya Ben Jabrallah. Electrolytes aux interfaces : accès aux premiers nanomètres par la technique des ondes stationnaires.. Physique [physics]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PA066709⟩. ⟨tel-01664956⟩

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