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La rencontre de la ville et de la forêt. L’action publique et les territoires de la nature en Grèce

Abstract : At the present time, Greece does not have a cadaster. This unique situation at the European level is the most evident manifestation of a social and politico-historical conflict concerning the application of the rights on land. This uncertainty of the land status is originated primarily from the disputed limits of the forests and particularly from their limits with the urban. One of the consequences of this phenomenon is the encroachment and clearing of forests for the construction, resulting unsustainable transformations on the urban, ecological and landscape level. Even if this statement makes an object of public debate, it is treated only as a technical problem, this of the establishment of a cadaster. In the same time, social and cognitive stakes are raising. In this perspective, the principal objective of this thesis is to explore the sociopolitical and epistemological aspects of the questions, what is forest, how we attribute its character and how we delimit it. More broadly, this thesis tents to inscribe the relation between the forest ant the city into a political dimension. In order to answer to this problematic, the thesis puts into perspective the two sectors of public action, the forest and the urban, through an approach crossing the political geography of the environment, sociology of professions, sociology of sciences. Firstly, on the level of institutions and their effects, the research analyses the interaction between the forest and the urban policies, as well their European perspectives through archivist and bibliographic researches. It pays a particular attention to the disputed status of tenure and use of the land exploring the application of the technical and administrative devices of registry and of definition of forest. Secondly, the research field is extended by taking into account the cognitive principles that consist both the foundation and the product of these policies. The cognitive principles are explored through the study of the organization and the professional and scientific practices of expert groups. The material of analysis is the collective discourse, developed by the scientific or professional bodies of the expert groups, as well as the interviews taken from their members. The purpose of analysis is the comprehension of the role of expert groups in the game of actors and the relation with other groups with a public role, mainly the ecology movement and the jurists. Furthermore, the thesis examines the territorial aspects of these relations. On one hand it studies the case of the Parnitha mountain, a national forest park into the periurban region of Athens. On the other hand it examines the protected regions of the Natura 2000 network, treating cartographic, demographic and landscape data. In a chronological point of view, two periods are distinguished. In the first part the work explores the genealogy of the object starting with the proclamation of the Greek independent state for arriving at the insertion of the environmentalism. In the second part the problematic concerns the period starting 1974 (end of dictatorship). Firstly until the 1990’s, which is the period of institutionalization of the environment until the turn point of intersectional and territorialized policies in the frame of sustainable development; secondly, from 1990’s until the economic crisis of 2010.
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Eleni Panagouli. La rencontre de la ville et de la forêt. L’action publique et les territoires de la nature en Grèce. Géographie. École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS), 2016. Français. ⟨tel-01664883⟩

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