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Imagerie nanométrique ultra-rapide par diffraction cohérente de rayonnement XUV produit par génération d'harmoniques d'ordre élevés

Abstract : The aim of this dissertation is todevelop new lensless single shot imagingtechnique in 2D and 3D with XUV harmonicsources which can be applied to study biologicalobjects and phase objects. Firstly, we introducethe theory underlying lensless imagingtechniques and we describe the methods usedduring this thesis to reconstruct the light fielddiffracted by the studied object. The imagingtechniques are split in two categories: iterativeand holographic. The iterative methodsreconstruct the phase of the diffracted wavefront using constraints in the Fourier space andthe reel space. With the holographic techniques,the phase is encoded directly in the interferencefringes between the reference and the objectwithin the diffraction pattern. We discuss theexperimental parameters required to achieve animage reconstruction and we compare therespective advantages of the two types ofmethod. Then, we describe the experimentalparameters of the XUV beam produced by highharmonic generation (HHG) and we brieflyexplain the theory of the HHG. The next sectiondiscusses the parameters the quality of thereconstructed image. We show how to improvethe resolution and the signal to noise ratio usingthe HERALDO technique in the low fluxregime.We then show the result of a new technique forthe single shot characterization of the spatialcoherence of XUV beams. Indeed, the spatialcoherence is a critical parameter for coherentdiffractive imaging techniques. Using a NRA ofreference holes, we measure the spatialcoherence for each distance between each pairof holes, without the knowledge of the intensitydistribution on the sample. We show that thespatial coherence has a gaussian distribution andthat its diameter varies according to thegeneration parameters of the harmonic beam.We also study quantitatively the effect of multishotsaccumulation of the diffraction pattern onthe apparent coherence of the beam. We alsoshow the result of phase object imaging usingcoherent diffractive imaging with a harmonicsource. To our knowledge, this if the first timesuch result has been achieved. The rest of thedissertation present new lensless imaging 3Dtechniques using harmonic sources. The first ofthe last two experiments shown is a lenslesssingle shot stereo 3D technique. It is the first oneallowing a 3D reconstruction from a singleacquisition, with a nanometer spatial resolutionand a femtosecond temporal resolution, withoutusing \textit{a priori} knowledge of the samplestudied. This method has a vast spectrum ofapplication and is particularly interesting for thestructural study of biological sample sensitive toradiation damage and for the study of nonreversibledynamical phenomena in 3D.Furthermore, this can easily be implemented inFELs and synchrotrons to reach even betterspatial resolution. The second 3D experimentshown in this thesis is a proof of concept ofcryptotomography using a high harmonic sourcein a low flux regime. To reconstruct the 3Dvolume of the sample, cryptotomographie usesdiffraction pattern acquired for unknown sampleorientations and therefore non-classified. Thelow flux regime used here simulate the flux of aharmonic source generated in the water window.We conclude from this experiment that, with theproper experimental conditions, the diffractionsignal is sufficient to allow the classification byorientation of the diffraction patterns. Withenough diffraction pattern and angles of thesample recorded, we can achieve a 3Dreconstruction of the sample. This result impliesthat the cryptotomography of biological objectsusing a water window harmonic source ispossible.
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Rémy Cassin. Imagerie nanométrique ultra-rapide par diffraction cohérente de rayonnement XUV produit par génération d'harmoniques d'ordre élevés. Physique des Hautes Energies - Expérience [hep-ex]. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLS591⟩. ⟨tel-01664522v2⟩

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