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Reconstitution du flux d'impact et des variations paléoclimatiques martiennes par la datation des cratères à éjecta lobés

Abstract : Counting craters on planetary surfaces is currently the only way to precise the events temporality which have marked the history of terrestrial bodies. This technique requires the precise knowledge of the rate with which impact craters are emplaced over time, the impact flux, but also its evolution in function of crater diameter, the production function. Together, these two variables constitute the chronology system of a planetary body. This system is relatively well constrained between 3,9 and 3,5 billion years before present and considered to be constant since 3 billion years, a hypothesis challenged by earthly and lunar observations. Layered ejecta craters are numerous on Mars. Their morphology is related to the presence of ice-rich material in the subsurface at the moment of the impact. The spatial and temporal evolution of this layer is poorly constrained. This one is primarily influenced by the obliquity of Mars. Their ejecta blankets are continuous and therefore constitute ideal surfaces to date the impact itself. The purpose of this thesis is to better constraint the Martian chronology and to better understand the variation of volatiles layer extent present under the surface of Mars. By the dating of the formation of a layered ejecta crater population located on Acidalia Planitia, it has been possible to compare the emplacement frequency of these structures with the impact flux that has been used to date them. An important mismatch between our data and the constant flux has been noted. An auto-consistency test between the measured impact rate and the rate used to date each crater has shown that the most consistent flux with our data is a cratering spike between 0,5 billion years and the actual period. This spike is associated to two main asteroid break-ups in the main asteroid belt. Nevertheless, this inverse method is challenged by a logical problem highlighted by the simulation of a synthetic population of craters. It appears a posteriori that the temporal fluctuation of the Martian chronology comes from the production function of impact craters of hundred meters of diameter. These results modify considerably the age of the Martian surface that we can measure by counting craters. The dating of all craters which exhibits a high extent of their ejecta blankets has also allowed to highlight an increasing of their age with the decreasing of the latitude. We have interpreted this observation by the result of the late evolution of the volatiles layer extent under the surface of Mars, linked to the shift of the obliquity. A decreasing of the Martian obliquity angle there was 4 million years ago has restricted the volatiles layer extent to high latitude. The close link between the location of these craters and their ages has allowed us to set some conditions of possible evolution of the Martian obliquity during the last 80 Myrs. Finally, the correction of the most complete Martian crater database thanks to a web interface accessible to everyone has allowed to create the first crater catalogue adapted to the martian surface dating. We have developed a crater classification allowing the exclusion, during a surface dating, of secondary craters, ghosts craters as well as false detections contained in the original database.
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Submitted on : Thursday, December 14, 2017 - 2:52:12 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, September 16, 2020 - 5:46:47 PM


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  • HAL Id : tel-01664059, version 1



Anthony Lagain. Reconstitution du flux d'impact et des variations paléoclimatiques martiennes par la datation des cratères à éjecta lobés. Planétologie. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLS430⟩. ⟨tel-01664059⟩



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