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Rôle du strontium en ingénierie tissulaire osseuse pour le développement d’une matrice composite de polysaccharides : application à la technique de Masquelet

Abstract : Reconstruction of large and complex bone defects remains a challenge for orthopaedic and maxillo-facial surgery. The gold standard strategy for bone reconstruction is the autologous bone graft. However, this approach still exhibits some limitations (infection risks, morbidity at the donor site). In this context, tissue engineering can provide innovative solutions for bone reconstruction. Indeed, the use of osteoconductives and osteoinductives matrices could replace autograft. Based on previous data obtained by our laboratory, the first objective of this work was to develop a composite matrix of polysaccharides containing hydroxyapatite (HA) particles doped with strontium (Sr), to stimulate both bone formation and angiogenesis. In vitro and in vivo results allow us to optimize the amount of HA particules and the ratio of Sr-substitution within the polysaccharide-based matrix. The second part of this work was to apply this biomaterial in the context of Masquelet approach. These two time procedure surgery, based on the formation of an induced membrane, is commonly used in orthopaedic and maxillo-facial surgery. The first chirurgical step uses a surgical cement (poly(methyl)methalcrylate, PMMA) to promote around it the formation of a vascularized membrane. Our work was to replace this cement by silicone and to study the influence of radiotherapy treatment on the quality and the function of this induced membrane. The first preclinical evaluation of this matrix has been performed on a rat femoral segmental bone defect, followed by a radiotherapy procedure. The perspectives of this work are to evaluate the performances of this matrix on irradiated segmental mandibular bone defect in large animal.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, December 13, 2017 - 4:33:09 PM
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Camille Ehret. Rôle du strontium en ingénierie tissulaire osseuse pour le développement d’une matrice composite de polysaccharides : application à la technique de Masquelet. Biologie cellulaire. Université de Bordeaux, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BORD0690⟩. ⟨tel-01663043⟩

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