Elaboration de matériaux composites à base de filaments de cellulose et de polyéthylène

Abstract : Over the past two decades, the increase of environmental concerns and shortage of petroleum resources have provoked a growing interest in the use of natural fibers as an alternative to synthetic fibers for the reinforcement of composites. Natural fibers possess desirable specific properties including biodegradability, renewability and low-cost. In addition, they have densities much lower than synthetic fibers, which makes them interesting for different applications ranging from automotive parts to packaging. Despite their benefits, certain drawbacks such as incompatibility with the hydrophobic polymer matrix, a tendency to form aggregates during processing and a poor resistance to moisture absorption, reduce the potential of these fibers to be used as a reinforcement of hydrophobic thermoplastic matrices.This thesis aims to substitute glass fibers by cellulose fibers for their use in fiber-reinforced composites. Reinforcement of LDPE composites with cellulose filaments (CF), supplied by our industrial partner Kruger, was studied. CF appear to an interesting alternative to glass fibers because they possess desirable specific properties including biodegradability, low density, high tensile strength and modulus as well as providing a low-cost and renewable option. However, the weak interfacial adhesion between CF and LDPE, and the high moisture absorption of CF led us to carry out several chemical modifications of CF in order to increase their hydrophobicity. Modified CF-composites exhibit higher mechanical properties and lower water uptake than unmodified CF-composites. Results obtained from acetylation, alkylation and paper sizing are described in this manuscript.
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Amaury Lepetit. Elaboration de matériaux composites à base de filaments de cellulose et de polyéthylène. Chimie organique. Université de Limoges, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LIMO0057⟩. ⟨tel-01662478⟩

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