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Influence du métabolisme mitochondrial dans la survie et la mort des cellules tumorales : intérêt du ciblage mitochondrial pour le traitement des cancers

Abstract : Mitochondria occupies a key role in cancer cells. As the main source of ATP synthesis and the site of anabolic and catabolic reactions, mitochondria support tumor development. Besides, mitochondria are also involved in the response to cellular stress regulating autophagy or cancer cell death.In this context, we have demonstrated that mitochondrial function may alter the ER stress response thus promoting tumor cell survival. Indeed, overexpression of the Glucocorticoid-Induced Leucine Zipper protein (GILZ) protein attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress mediated cell death. This is achieved by maintaining the mitochondrial network and the increase of mitochondrial function. In this study, we demonstrated that maintaining mitochondrial function is important for the protective effect of GILZ since using melanoma cell lines lacking mitochondrial activity (ρ0 cell lines) and overexpressing GILZ are susceptible to death induced by reticular stress inducers. Our studies have also shown that the increase of mitochondrial function induced by GILZ can be used to re-sensitize the cancer cells to death induced by prooxidant molecules as elesclomol.In another tumoral context, we have also demonstrated that a sub-population of BRAF mutated melanoma cells can increase mitochondrial metabolism to survive to ER stress-mediated cell death induced by several MAPK inhibitors. Resistance to MPAki involves a significant increase in mitochondrial OXPHOS associated with mitochondrial network remodeling around the ER, which facilitates mitochondrial calcium uptake. Our results have shown that mitochondrial function is crucial for the survival of cancer cells. Altogether our data indicate that given their multiple cellular roles, cancer cell mitochondria constitute attractive therapeutic targets.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, December 13, 2017 - 10:54:16 AM
Last modification on : Tuesday, October 20, 2020 - 3:28:38 AM

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Fanny André. Influence du métabolisme mitochondrial dans la survie et la mort des cellules tumorales : intérêt du ciblage mitochondrial pour le traitement des cancers. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LIL2S001⟩. ⟨tel-01662470⟩

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