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Variabilité intraspécifique de la résistance à l'embolie et trade-offs fonctionnels chez le tournesol (Helianthus annuus L.) et le pin maritime (Pinus pinaster Ait.)

Abstract : As a consequence of current global climate change, forest and crop ecosystems are decreasing inproductivity worldwide and are under increased threat of widespread drought-induced mortality due tohydraulic failure caused by xylem embolism. The range of embolism resistance across species has been intensively studied but little attention has been paid to intraspecific variability. This thesis aimed thereforeat improving our understanding of the intraspecific variation in embolism resistance in one crop species(Helianthus annuus L.) and one conifer species (Pinus pinaster). In the first place, vulnerability to embolism was determined across four sunflower accessions with significant variations in P50 (pressure inducing 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity) ranging between -2.67 and -3.22 MPa. A trade-off between hydraulic safety and growth was observed but not between hydraulic safety and efficiency. Only few anatomical traits, such as vessel density and vessel lumen area, were found related to embolism resistance.Secondly, we phenotyped 477 P. pinaster full-sib F2 genotypes corresponding to a three-generation inbred pedigree obtained by the self-pollination of an inter “Corsica × Landes” provenance hybrid, for embolismresistance and wood density. The variability for P50 within species was remarkably low (CVP=5.6%). Wealso found a lack of trade-off between hydraulic safety and wood density. The phenotypic variance explained by QTLs (PEV) detected for P50 accounted for 23.6% of the phenotypic variation but no QTL collocated between P50 and wood density, suggesting that embolism resistant genotypes in this family are not dependent on denser wood. A multi-trait analysis of leaf and xylem functioning was performed through seasonal measurements of photosystem II fluorescence and stem hydraulic traits on a full-sib family of aninter “Morocco × Landes” provenance hybrid of P. pinaster; it revealed that with decreasing water potential, the efficiency of both photosystem II and stomatal conductance decreased which resulted in rapid decrease in assimilation rate. Xylem resistance to embolism was found having no relationship with leaf functioning traits. The absence of trade-off between these traits makes it possible to consider selection for both efficient and resistant genotypes.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, December 12, 2017 - 1:43:06 AM
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Hafiz Bashir Ahmad. Variabilité intraspécifique de la résistance à l'embolie et trade-offs fonctionnels chez le tournesol (Helianthus annuus L.) et le pin maritime (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Sylviculture, foresterie. Université de Bordeaux, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BORD0747⟩. ⟨tel-01661596⟩

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