Juridictionnalisation de la répression pénale et institution du ministère public : étude comparative France-Angleterre

Abstract : In France, like in England, the Public Prosecutor is historically intended to ensure the judicial nature of criminal justice. Reciprocally, the strengthening of the judicial nature of the criminal justice traditionally restricts the prerogatives of the Public Prosecutor's Office. However, the link between the reinforcement of the judicial nature of the criminal justice and the existence of the Public Prosecutor, albeit obvious, evaporates slowly in multiple shades. The French and the English lawmakers, supported by case law, have come to considerably strengthen the Public Prosecutor's investigation and pre-trial powers, thus ousting the judicial nature of the criminal justice. Although it may seem that the judicial nature of repression is preserved when the Public Prosecutor is required to obtain coercive measures or ultimate retribution, it turns out to be deprived of substance. An a priori control by a judge who grants judicial investigative powers to the Public Prosecutor is always formalistic, whereas an a posteriori control by a judge who may annul decisions taken during the investigation is flawed and random. However, a guarantee of a regular use of investigative powers and of treatment of offenses cannot come out of the strengthening of judicial nature of the Public Prosecutor. A comparative analysis of the structure of the Public Prosecutor’s Office in France and in England reveals that the dues that are to be considered -independence and impartiality of the French Public Prosecutor -do not suffice. It is a reestablishment of the judicial functions of the body, coherent with its true ratio, that should be implemented.
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Nicolas Jeanne. Juridictionnalisation de la répression pénale et institution du ministère public : étude comparative France-Angleterre. Droit. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PA010283⟩. ⟨tel-01661581⟩

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