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Impact radiatif des aérosols de haute altitude

Abstract : Atmospheric aerosols impact the earth radiative budget and its climate. Depending on their emission mechanisms and atmospheric transport processes, aerosols can be injected into the free tropophere where their lifetime is increased to up to several weeks. Optical and radiative properties of free tropospheric aerosols are still poorly known because of the difficulties to access high altitudes over long periods of time. The present work is based on two high altitude sites measurements: the ACTRIS/GAW station of puy de Dôme (PUY, 1 465 m, France) and the ACTRIS/GAW station of Chacaltaya (CHC, 5 240 m, Bolivia). These two sites are equipped with a unique set of both in-situ and remote sensing measurements. Results first show the importance of taking into account the vertical atmospheric structure and the hygroscopic properties of aerosols when combining in situ and remote sensing measurements. Measurements from the highest atmospheric station in the world (Chacaltaya), provide for the first time to our knowledge, the aerosol optical properties from this region of the world, segregated into mixing layer aerosols and free tropospheric aerosols.The site is both influenced by anthropogenic emissions from the nearby city, La Paz and pristine emissions from the Amazonian forest. From these measurements, we observe that biomass burning emissions can increase column aerosol optical properties by an average factor of 3,5 and the free tropospheric aerosol optical properties between 28 and 80%. The station is regularly influenced by free tropospheric conditions (30% of the time during daytime and 60% during nighttime). This manuscript is also presenting original methods for retrieving the optical and radiative aerosol contributions from the free tropospheric layer to the total atmospheric column using a combination of in-situ, photometric and LIDAR measurements. Results show that free tropospheric contributions above puy de Dôme station vary from 20% during winter to 80% during summer. The use of the radiative transfer model SBDART allows to evaluate the corresponding shortwave radiative contributions of free tropospheric aerosols between 13 and 40% (between -1 and -10 W.m-2). Thus, the different surface aerosol emissions influence significantly the free tropospheric composition which is essential for radiative budget determination.
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Aurélien Chauvigné. Impact radiatif des aérosols de haute altitude. Sciences de la Terre. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016CLF22757⟩. ⟨tel-01661572⟩

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