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Régulation naturelle du puceron cendré et aménagements agro-écologiques : l'exemple des vergers cidricoles du nord-ouest de la France

Abstract : In spite of their successes, agricultural systems based on the massive use of inputs are questioned for their negative externalities. Agroecology offers to substitute inputs with natural ecological processes. Apple-cider production is engaged in the development of agroecology. Here, we aimed at assessing the benefits provided by two types of agroecological infrastructures: hedgerows and flower strips. We characterised the entomological fauna encountered in 14 cider-apple orchards in northwestern France (Bretagne, Normandy) and its evolution along the season. Data analysis confirmed agroecological infrastructure attractiveness to apple pest natural enemies. The observation of rosy apple aphid (Dysaphis plantaginea) population dynamics allows hierarchizing the contributions of several natural enemies to pest control and demonstrates their temporal complementaritySyrphids and coccinellids are the most effective with the firsts being the most precocious. The beneficial role to aphids of ant presence is confirmed. Flower strips reduce aphid abundances and increase the abundances of most natural enemy groups. Conversely, hedgerows are favourable to the pest. An ant-excluding device reduces significantly ant and aphid abundances and increases syrphid and coccinellid abundances, confirming the deleterious effect of ants on natural enemies. Finally, a prototype of an indicator of biological control potential against D. plantaginea was designed.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, December 12, 2017 - 9:18:13 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01661558, version 2

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Laurence Albert. Régulation naturelle du puceron cendré et aménagements agro-écologiques : l'exemple des vergers cidricoles du nord-ouest de la France. Sciences agricoles. Agrocampus Ouest, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017NSARA081⟩. ⟨tel-01661558v2⟩

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