Algorithmes stochastiques pour la statistique robuste en grande dimension

Abstract : This thesis focus on stochastic algorithms in high dimension as well as their application in robust statistics. In what follows, the expression high dimension may be used when the the size of the studied sample is large or when the variables we consider take values in high dimensional spaces (not necessarily finite). In order to analyze these kind of data, it can be interesting to consider algorithms which are fast, which do not need to store all the data, and which allow to update easily the estimates. In large sample of high dimensional data, outliers detection is often complicated. Nevertheless, these outliers, even if they are not many, can strongly disturb simple indicators like the mean and the covariance. We will focus on robust estimates, which are not too much sensitive to outliers.In a first part, we are interested in the recursive estimation of the geometric median, which is a robust indicator of location which can so be preferred to the mean when a part of the studied data is contaminated. For this purpose, we introduce a Robbins-Monro algorithm as well as its averaged version, before building non asymptotic confidence balls for these estimates, and exhibiting their $L^{p}$ and almost sure rates of convergence.In a second part, we focus on the estimation of the Median Covariation Matrix (MCM), which is a robust dispersion indicator linked to the geometric median. Furthermore, if the studied variable has a symmetric law, this indicator has the same eigenvectors as the covariance matrix. This last property represent a real interest to study the MCM, especially for Robust Principal Component Analysis. We so introduce a recursive algorithm which enables us to estimate simultaneously the geometric median, the MCM, and its $q$ main eigenvectors. We give, in a first time, the strong consistency of the estimators of the MCM, before exhibiting their rates of convergence in quadratic mean.In a third part, in the light of the work on the estimates of the median and of the Median Covariation Matrix, we exhibit the almost sure and $L^{p}$ rates of convergence of averaged stochastic gradient algorithms in Hilbert spaces, with less restrictive assumptions than in the literature. Then, two applications in robust statistics are given: estimation of the geometric quantiles and application in robust logistic regression.In the last part, we aim to fit a sphere on a noisy points cloud spread around a complete or truncated sphere. More precisely, we consider a random variable with a truncated spherical distribution, and we want to estimate its center as well as its radius. In this aim, we introduce a projected stochastic gradient algorithm and its averaged version. We establish the strong consistency of these estimators as well as their rates of convergence in quadratic mean. Finally, the asymptotic normality of the averaged algorithm is given.
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Antoine Godichon-Baggioni. Algorithmes stochastiques pour la statistique robuste en grande dimension. Statistiques [math.ST]. Université de Bourgogne, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016DIJOS053⟩. ⟨tel-01661539⟩

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