Les facteurs de variations de la lipolyse spontanée du lait de vache et mécanismes biochimiques associés

Abstract : Lipolysis is an enzymatic reaction which leads to off-flavor in milk and impairs technological properties of milk. Spontaneous lipolysis (SL) is the fraction of lipolysis which depends on cows and breeding systems. SP corresponds to the hydrolysis of milk fat in milk fat globules (MFG) by the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and its cofactors. The aim of the PhD was to understand SL variations at both zootechnical and biochemical levels. Cows were sorted in two groups according their phenotype: “susceptible” and “non-susceptible” to SL, confirming the strong impact of the individual effect. Among cows “susceptible” to SL, we confirmed the effects of breed/genetics, parity, physiological stage, milking moment, milking frequency and feeding systems. SL was higher in evening milks of Holstein cows and of cows having the KK genotype at the DGAT-1 locus. SL was higher in late lactation and, in early lactation only for high merit multiparous cows, probably in relation to negative energy balanceAn increase in milking frequency, feeding restriction, maize silage based diets compared to fresh grass and conserved grass based diets and lipid supplementation enhanced SL. At a biochemical level, LS might be inhibited by proteose peptone 5. The MFG membrane might play an important role on MFG integrity, LPL and MFG interactions, and cofactors balance. The impact of zootechnical and biochemical factors on SL is still difficult to hierarchize
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Élise Vanbergue. Les facteurs de variations de la lipolyse spontanée du lait de vache et mécanismes biochimiques associés. Biologie animale. Agrocampus Ouest, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017NSARB291⟩. ⟨tel-01661523⟩

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