Contrôle de l'orientation de molécules pour la réalisation de nanosources de lumière

Abstract : This work deals with the development of a new kind of scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) based on the realization of so-called active probes taking advantage of the second harmonic generation (SHG) signal coming from a few oriented molecules. The orientation of these molecules is obtained by applying a static electric field in a junction made of a sharp metallic tip placed close to a conductive substrate and immersed in a solution containing dipolar non-linear molecules. A second order nonlinear polarization is obtained from these locally oriented molecules following their excitation with a laser beam finally leading to a nanosource of light intrinsically localized and able to interact with the near-field of the substrate.We have investigated this SNOM-SHG technique to image nano-objects made by e-beam lithography. We were able to demonstrate that a resolution of about 100 nm could be reached, which appears better (of a factor2) than the diffraction limit.We have then been focusing on the way to improve the capabilities of this new type of SNOM-SHG probes. One approach consists in taking advantage of the optical antenna effects that can occur at the end of sharp tips, where the electromagnetic field can be enhanced due to geometrical effects (sharp extremities) or due to the excitation of plasmon resonances. In order to quantify these field enhancements, we have carried out the characterization of gold nanowires using two-photon luminescence (TPL) ; considering these wires as reference objects that can mimic tips. Nanowires made by e-beam lithography and nanowires synthesized by colloidal chemistry have both been studied in order to have a better understanding of the influence of the shape and the crystallinity on the field enhancements. Simultaneous analysis of the geometry and the optical properties of a single nanowire has been carried out using an inverted microscope associated to a laser excitation and coupled to an atomic force microscopy (AFM) which tip is previously aligned with the laser spot. When scanning the sample, we can directly correlate the topographic image of the object to the mapping of the hotspots recorded on its surface, the TPL signal being directly linked to the electromagnetic local density of states. We were able to evidence that both nanowires made by e-beam lithography or synthesized by colloidal chemistry exhibit different field enhancement factors, the crystallinity of the objects being also revealed following the spectral analysis of the emitted TPL signal.Finally, a last important part of my work has dealt with the evolution of the experimental setup previously developed in the laboratory in order to be able to achieve simultaneously SNOM-SHG type and topographic characterizations. We have therefore been working on the integration of an AFM tuning fork head to our nonlinear optical bench. Above the electronic aspects related on the optimization of the tuning fork implementation, the coupling of the laser beam in the microscope has also been reconfigured.
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Patrick Hsia. Contrôle de l'orientation de molécules pour la réalisation de nanosources de lumière. Optique [physics.optics]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015SACLS124⟩. ⟨tel-01660546⟩

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