. R. Bibliography-1, E. Gattass, and . Mazur, Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials, Nat Photon, vol.2, pp.219-225, 2008.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevi?ius, and P. G. Kazansky, Ultrafast laser direct writing and nanostructuring in transparent materials, Advances in Optics and Photonics, vol.6, issue.3, pp.293-339, 2014.
DOI : 10.1364/AOP.6.000293

D. Choudhury, J. R. Macdonald, and A. K. Kar, Ultrafast laser inscription: perspectives on future integrated applications, Laser & Photonics Reviews, vol.21, issue.6, pp.827-846, 2014.
DOI : 10.1364/OE.21.002978

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass, Laser & Photonics Review, vol.32, issue.110, pp.26-46, 2008.
DOI : 10.1002/lpor.200710031

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, J. Canning, K. Cook, J. C. Poulin et al., Ultrafast nanoporous silica formation driven by femtosecond laser irradiation, Laser & Photonics Reviews, vol.50, issue.4, pp.953-962, 2013.
DOI : 10.1364/OE.21.003959

S. Mao, F. Quéré, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. Russo et al., Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics, Applied Physics A, vol.79, issue.7, pp.1695-1709, 2004.
DOI : 10.1007/s00339-004-2684-0

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00004161

S. Richter, C. Miese, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, M. J. Withford et al., Laser induced nanogratings beyond fused silica - periodic nanostructures in borosilicate glasses and ULE???, Optical Materials Express, vol.3, issue.8, pp.1161-1166, 2013.
DOI : 10.1364/OME.3.001161

F. Chen and J. R. De-aldana, Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining, Laser & Photonics Reviews, vol.76, issue.2, pp.251-275, 2014.
DOI : 10.1007/s00339-002-1813-x

A. Saliminia, N. Nguyen, S. Chin, and R. Vallée, The influence of self-focusing and filamentation on refractive index modifications in fused silica using intense femtosecond pulses, Optics Communications, vol.241, issue.4-6, pp.529-538, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.optcom.2004.07.063

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu et al., Direct writing three-dimensional Ba 2 TiSi 2 O 8 crystalline pattern in glass with ultrashort pulse laser, Appl. Phys. Lett, vol.90, p.1109, 2007.

D. Tan, K. N. Sharafudeen, Y. Yue, and J. Qiu, Femtosecond laser induced phenomena in transparent solid materials: Fundamentals and applications, Progress in Materials Science, vol.76, pp.154-228, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pmatsci.2015.09.002

T. T. Fernandez, J. Siegel, J. Hoyo, B. Sotillo, P. Fernandez et al., Controlling plasma distributions as driving forces for ion migration during fs laser writing, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol.48, issue.15, p.155101, 2015.
DOI : 10.1088/0022-3727/48/15/155101

B. Poumellec, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Femtosecond laser irradiation stress induced in pure silica, Optics Express, vol.11, issue.9, pp.1070-1079, 2003.
DOI : 10.1364/OE.11.001070

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00463650

. Kashyap, Direct laser-writing of ferroelectric single-crystal waveguide architectures in glass for 3D integrated optics, Sci Rep, vol.5, p.10391, 2015.

B. Mcmillen, B. Zhang, K. P. Chen, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, Ultrafast laser fabrication of low-loss waveguides in chalcogenide glass with 065??????dB/cm loss, Optics Letters, vol.37, issue.9, pp.1418-1420, 2012.
DOI : 10.1364/OL.37.001418

E. Cartlidge, A Photonic Upgrade for Computer Memory?, Optics and Photonics News, vol.27, issue.4, pp.24-31, 2016.
DOI : 10.1364/OPN.27.4.000024

C. Fan, B. Poumellec, M. Lancry, X. He, H. Zeng et al., Three-dimensional photoprecipitation of oriented LiNbO_3-like crystals in silica-based glass with femtosecond laser irradiation, Optics Letters, vol.37, issue.14, pp.2955-2957, 2012.
DOI : 10.1364/OL.37.002955

Y. Yonesaki, K. Miura, R. Araki, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, Space-selective precipitation of non-linear optical crystals inside silicate glasses using near-infrared femtosecond laser, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol.351, issue.10-11, pp.885-892, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2005.01.076

A. Podlipensky, J. Lange, G. Seifert, H. Graener, and I. Cravetchi, Second-harmonic generation from ellipsoidal silver nanoparticles embedded in silica glass, Optics Letters, vol.28, issue.9, pp.716-718, 2003.
DOI : 10.1364/OL.28.000716

J. Choi, M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, G. Papon et al., Three-dimensional direct femtosecond laser writing of second-order nonlinearities in glass, Optics Letters, vol.37, issue.6, pp.1029-1031, 2012.
DOI : 10.1364/OL.37.001029

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00680393

Y. Dai, H. Ma, B. Lu, B. Yu, B. Zhu et al., Femtosecond laser-induced oriented precipitation of Ba_2TiGe_2O_8 crystals in glass, Optics Express, vol.16, issue.6, pp.3912-3917, 2008.
DOI : 10.1364/OE.16.003912

S. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah et al., Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate, Optics Express, vol.13, issue.12, pp.4708-4716, 2005.
DOI : 10.1364/OPEX.13.004708

X. He, C. Fan, B. Poumellec, Q. Liu, H. Zeng et al., Size-controlled oriented crystallization in SiO_2-based glasses by femtosecond laser irradiation, Journal of the Optical Society of America B, vol.31, issue.2, pp.376-381, 2014.
DOI : 10.1364/JOSAB.31.000376

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Space-selective growth of frequency-conversion crystals in glasses with ultrashort infrared laser pulses, Optics Letters, vol.25, issue.6, pp.408-410, 2000.
DOI : 10.1364/OL.25.000408

A. Stone, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, G. Stone, P. Gupta et al., Directionally controlled 3D ferroelectric single crystal growth in LaBGeO_5 glass by femtosecond laser irradiation, Optics Express, vol.17, issue.25, pp.23284-23289, 2009.
DOI : 10.1364/OE.17.023284

X. He, B. Poumellec, F. Liu, M. Brisset, and . Lancry, One-step photoinscription of asymmetrically oriented fresnoite-type crystals in glass by ultrafast laser, Optics Letters, vol.39, issue.18, pp.5423-5426, 2014.
DOI : 10.1364/OL.39.005423

G. Beall and D. Duke, Transparent glass-ceramics, Journal of Materials Science, vol.118, issue.4, pp.340-352, 1969.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00550404

H. Jain, Transparent Ferroelectric Glass-Ceramics, Ferroelectrics, vol.56, issue.1, pp.111-127, 2004.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1151-2916.1996.tb07875.x

V. Dussauze and . Rodriguez, Synthesis and multiscale evaluation of LiNbO 3 -containing silicate glassceramics with efficient isotropic SHG response, Adv. Funct. Mater, vol.22, pp.3985-3993, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00751543

C. Awada, Nature cohérente et incohérente de la réponse de second harmonique dans les nanostructures métalliques d'or et d'argent Doctoral dissertation, 2009.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Self-Organized Nanogratings in Glass Irradiated by Ultrashort Light Pulses, Physical Review Letters, vol.12, issue.24, p.247405, 2003.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.51.423

E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, Form birefringence and negative index change created by femtosecond direct writing in transparent materials, Optics Letters, vol.29, issue.1, pp.119-121, 2004.
DOI : 10.1364/OL.29.000119

V. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. Taylor et al., Optically Produced Arrays of Planar Nanostructures inside Fused Silica, Physical Review Letters, vol.26, issue.5, p.57404, 2006.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevB.30.519

F. Zhang, H. Zhang, G. Dong, and J. Qiu, Embedded nanogratings in germanium dioxide glass induced by femtosecond laser direct writing, Journal of the Optical Society of America B, vol.31, issue.4, pp.860-864, 2014.
DOI : 10.1364/JOSAB.31.000860

S. Richter, D. Möncke, F. Zimmermann, E. I. Kamitsos, L. Wondraczek et al., Ultrashort pulse induced modifications in ULE - from nanograting formation to laser darkening, Optical Materials Express, vol.5, issue.8
DOI : 10.1364/OME.5.001834

. Kazansky, Direct writing of birefringent elements by ultrafast laser nanostructuring in multicomponent glass, Appl. Phys. Lett, vol.108, p.71905, 2016.

E. Mountrichas, S. Kamitsos, and . Lotarev, Crystallization and second harmonic generation of lithium niobium silicate glass ceramics, J. Am. Ceram. Soc, vol.94, pp.2080-2086, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00932172

R. Weis and T. Gaylord, Lithium niobate: Summary of physical properties and crystal structure, Applied Physics A Solids and Surfaces, vol.54, issue.4
DOI : 10.1080/00150198408245047

M. M. Choy and R. L. Byer, Accurate second-order susceptibility measurements of visible and infrared nonlinear crystals, Physical Review B, vol.23, issue.4, p.1693, 1976.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.23.1336

M. Paul, M. Tabuchi, and A. R. West, Defect structure of Ni, co-doped LiNbO 3 and LiTaO 3, Chem

H. Sun and S. Kawata, Two-photon photopolymerization and 3D lithographic microfabrication, NMR 3D Analysis Photopolymerization, 2004.

U. Keller, Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers, Nature, vol.38, issue.110, pp.831-838, 2003.
DOI : 10.1109/JQE.2002.802111

P. Agostini and L. F. Dimauro, The physics of attosecond light pulses, Reports on Progress in Physics, vol.67, issue.6, p.813, 2004.
DOI : 10.1088/0034-4885/67/6/R01

M. Heinzmann, F. Drescher, and . Krausz, Attosecond metrology, Nature, vol.414, pp.509-513, 2001.

G. Mourou, C. Labaune, M. Dunne, N. Naumova, and V. Tikhonchuk, Relativistic laser-matter interaction: from attosecond pulse generation to fast ignition, Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, vol.49, issue.12B, p.667, 2007.
DOI : 10.1088/0741-3335/49/12B/S61

M. Pessot, P. Maine, and G. Mourou, 1000 times expansion/compression of optical pulses for chirped pulse amplification, Optics Communications, vol.62, issue.6, pp.419-421, 1987.
DOI : 10.1016/0030-4018(87)90011-3

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev et al., Investigation of Ultrafast Laser--Photonic Material Interactions: Challenges for Directly Written Glass Photonics, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, vol.14, issue.5, pp.1370-1381, 2008.
DOI : 10.1109/JSTQE.2008.925809

M. Beresna, Polarization engineering with ultrafast laser writing in transparent media Doctoral dissertation, 2012.

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser, Optics Letters, vol.21, issue.21, pp.1729-1731, 1996.
DOI : 10.1364/OL.21.001729

L. M. Osterink and J. D. Foster, Gaussian beam optics," https://marketplace.idexop.com/store/SupportDocuments/All_About_Gaussian_Beam_OpticsWEB.pd f, accessed 24, Thermal effects and transverse mode control in a Nd, 2016.

C. Hnatovsky, R. Taylor, E. Simova, V. Bhardwaj, D. Rayner et al., High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.13, issue.1, p.13517, 2005.
DOI : 10.1088/0022-3727/7/14/309

Q. Sun, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Zhou, H. Yang et al., Effect of spherical aberration on the propagation of a tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse inside fused silica, Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics, vol.7, issue.11, p.655, 2005.
DOI : 10.1088/1464-4258/7/11/006

M. Gu, D. Day, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, Three-dimensional coherent transfer function for reflection confocal microscopy in the presence of refractive-index mismatch, Journal of the Optical Society of America A, vol.18, issue.8, 2001.
DOI : 10.1364/JOSAA.18.002002

A. Marcinkevi?ius, V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Effect of refractive index-mismatch on laser microfabrication in silica glass, Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, vol.76, issue.2, pp.257-260, 2003.
DOI : 10.1007/s00339-002-1447-z

S. Hendy, Light scattering in transparent glass ceramics, Applied Physics Letters, vol.34, issue.7, pp.1171-1173, 2002.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.59.668

L. V. Keldysh, Diagram technique for nonequilibrium processes, Sov. Phys. JETP, vol.20, pp.1018-1026, 1965.

I. Shchatsinin, Free clusters and free molecules in strong, shaped laser fields Doctoral dissertation, 2009.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses, Measurement Science and Technology, vol.12, issue.11, p.1784, 2001.
DOI : 10.1088/0957-0233/12/11/305

B. J. Buerke, Accurate measurement of tunneling ionization rates of atoms in a high-intensity laser field, 2000.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Laser-Induced Damage in Dielectrics with Nanosecond to Subpicosecond Pulses, Physical Review Letters, vol.20, issue.12, pp.2248-2251, 1995.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.62.2711

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, and J. Gottmann, Local Melting of Glass Material and Its Application to Direct Fusion Welding by Ps-laser Pulses, Journal of Laser Micro/Nanoengineering, vol.2, issue.1, pp.7-14, 2007.
DOI : 10.2961/jlmn.2007.01.0002

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and F. Yoshino, Fusion Welding of Glass Using Femtosecond Laser Pulses with High-repetition Rates, Journal of Laser Micro/Nanoengineering, vol.2, issue.1, pp.57-63, 2007.
DOI : 10.2961/jlmn.2007.01.0011

G. H. Wannier, The Structure of Electronic Excitation Levels in Insulating Crystals, Physical Review, vol.8, issue.3, p.191, 1937.
DOI : 10.1103/RevModPhys.8.294

J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and H. Jain, Laser-induced structural modification, its mechanisms, and applications in glassy optical materials, Optical Materials Express, vol.1, issue.5, pp.921-935, 2011.
DOI : 10.1364/OME.1.000921

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, A. Chahid-erraji, M. Beresna, and P. G. Kazansky, Dependence of the femtosecond laser refractive index change thresholds on the chemical composition of doped-silica glasses, Optical Materials Express, vol.1, issue.4, pp.711-723, 2011.
DOI : 10.1364/OME.1.000711

R. Wang, K. Saito, and A. Ikushima, Distributions of self-trapped hole continuums in silica glass, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.6, issue.1
DOI : 10.1080/00018737700101413

M. Watanabe, S. Juodkazis, H. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Luminescence and defect formation by visible and near-infrared irradiation of vitreous silica, Physical Review B, vol.80, issue.14, pp.9959-9964, 1999.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.80.2149

C. M. Gee and M. Kastner, Intrinsic-defect photoluminescence in amorphous and crystalline SiO 2, J

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, R. Desmarchelier, and B. Bourguignon, Oriented creation of anisotropic defects by IR femtosecond laser scanning in silica, Optical Materials Express, vol.2, issue.12, pp.1809-1821, 2012.
DOI : 10.1364/OME.2.001809

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses, Optics Communications, vol.191, issue.3-6, pp.333-339, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0030-4018(01)01152-X

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00463712

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses, Physical Review B, vol.154, issue.155, p.125435, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/S0169-4332(99)00440-7

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00463614

C. Hnatovsky, R. Taylor, P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. Bhardwaj et al., Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica, Applied Physics Letters, vol.87, issue.1, p.14104, 2005.
DOI : 10.1088/1464-4258/6/8/008

R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and R. Ramponi, Femtosecond laser micromachining: Photonic and microfluidic devices in transparent materials, 2012.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-642-23366-1

B. Poumellec, M. Lancry, A. Chahid-erraji, and P. G. Kazansky, Modification thresholds in femtosecond laser processing of pure silica: review of dependencies on laser parameters [Invited], Optical Materials Express, vol.1, issue.4, pp.766-782, 2011.
DOI : 10.1364/OME.1.000766.m001

M. Lancry, E. Régnier, and B. Poumellec, Fictive temperature in silica-based glasses and its application to optical fiber manufacturing, Progress in Materials Science, vol.57, issue.1, pp.63-94, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pmatsci.2011.05.002

V. Bhardwaj, P. Corkum, D. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova et al., Stress in femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in fused silica, Optics Letters, vol.29, issue.12, pp.1312-1314, 2004.
DOI : 10.1364/OL.29.001312

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining, Applied Physics Letters, vol.81, issue.2, pp.196-198, 2002.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.48.1678

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, K. Cook, and J. Canning, Nanogratings and molecular oxygen formation during femtosecond laser irradiation in silica, 2011 International Quantum Electronics Conference (IQEC) and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) Pacific Rim incorporating the Australasian Conference on Optics, Lasers and Spectroscopy and the Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology, p.229, 2011.
DOI : 10.1109/IQEC-CLEO.2011.6193692

E. Bricchi and P. G. Kazansky, Extraordinary stability of anisotropic femtosecond direct-written structures embedded in silica glass, Applied Physics Letters, vol.12, issue.11, p.111119, 2006.
DOI : 10.1364/OL.26.001726

R. Desmarchelier, B. Poumellec, F. Brisset, S. Mazerat, and M. Lancry, In the Heart of Femtosecond Laser Induced Nanogratings: From Porous Nanoplanes to Form Birefringence, World Journal of Nano Science and Engineering, vol.05, issue.04, p.115, 2015.
DOI : 10.4236/wjnse.2015.54014

T. Asai, Y. Shimotsuma, T. Kurita, A. Murata, S. Kubota et al., Glass Induced by Femtosecond Laser Direct Writing, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol.112, issue.3, pp.1471-1477, 2015.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.033901

F. Zimmermann, A. Plech, S. Richter, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, Ultrashort laser pulse induced nanogratings in borosilicate glass, Applied Physics Letters, vol.104, issue.21, p.211107, 2014.
DOI : 10.1364/OE.21.015452

W. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing, Optics Express, vol.14, issue.21, pp.10117-10124, 2006.
DOI : 10.1364/OE.14.010117

F. Zimmermann, A. Plech, S. Richter, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, The onset of ultrashort pulse-induced nanogratings, Laser & Photonics Reviews, vol.21, issue.12, pp.327-334, 2016.
DOI : 10.1364/OE.21.014291

E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T. H. Her et al., Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials, Threedimensional optical storage inside transparentmaterials, pp.2023-2025, 1996.
DOI : 10.1364/OL.21.002023

H. Sun, Y. Xu, S. Juodkazis, K. Sun, M. Watanabe et al., Arbitrary-lattice photonic crystals created by multiphoton microfabrication, Optics Letters, vol.26, issue.6, pp.325-327, 2001.
DOI : 10.1364/OL.26.000325

. Nolte, Femtosecond laser written nanostructures in Ge-doped glasses, Opt. Lett, vol.41, pp.1161-1164, 2016.

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. Brueckner, B. Chichkov et al., Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate, Applied Physics B, vol.280, issue.1, pp.21-27, 2007.
DOI : 10.1070/PU2005v048n01ABEH002081

Y. Bellouard and M. Hongler, Femtosecond-laser generation of self-organized bubble patterns in fused silica, Optics Express, vol.19, issue.7, pp.6807-6821, 2011.
DOI : 10.1364/OE.19.006807

S. Maruo, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, Three-dimensional microfabrication with two-photon-absorbed photopolymerization, Optics Letters, vol.22, issue.2, pp.132-134, 1997.
DOI : 10.1364/OL.22.000132

S. Kawata, H. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Finer features for functional microdevices, Nature, vol.24, issue.6848, pp.697-698, 2001.
DOI : 10.1143/JJAP.37.L684

D. Umstadter, Relativistic laser??plasma interactions, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol.36, issue.8, p.151, 2003.
DOI : 10.1088/0022-3727/36/8/202

A. Scott, Encyclopedia of nonlinear science (Routledge, 2006.

H. Daido, M. Nishiuchi, and A. S. Pirozhkov, Review of laser-driven ion sources and their applications, Reports on Progress in Physics, vol.75, issue.5, p.56401, 2012.
DOI : 10.1088/0034-4885/75/5/056401

F. Träger, Springer handbook of lasers and optics, 2007.

A. L. Fussell, A. Isomaki, and C. J. Strachan, Non-linear optical imaging-Introduction and pharmaceutical applications, Am Pharmaceut Rev, vol.16, pp.54-63, 2013.

P. Pantazis, J. Maloney, D. Wu, and S. E. Fraser, Second harmonic generating (SHG) nanoprobes for in vivo imaging, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, pp.14535-14540, 2010.
DOI : 10.1088/0031-9155/37/4/012

J. Butet, I. Russier-antoine, C. Jonin, N. Lascoux, E. Benichou et al., Nonlinear Mie theory for the second harmonic generation in metallic nanoshells, Journal of the Optical Society of America B, vol.29, issue.8, pp.2213-2221, 2012.
DOI : 10.1364/JOSAB.29.002213

P. Franken, A. Hill, C. E. Peters, and G. Weinreich, Generation of Optical Harmonics, Physical Review Letters, vol.6, issue.4, p.118, 1961.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.6.106

P. S. Halasyamani and K. R. Poeppelmeier, Noncentrosymmetric Oxides, Chemistry of Materials, vol.10, issue.10, pp.2753-2769, 1998.
DOI : 10.1021/cm980140w

J. H. Marburger, Self-focusing: Theory, Progress in Quantum Electronics, vol.4, pp.35-110, 1975.
DOI : 10.1016/0079-6727(75)90003-8

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media, Physics Reports, vol.441, issue.2-4, pp.47-189, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.physrep.2006.12.005

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00454778

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, Ultrafast white-light continuum generation and self-focusing in transparent condensed media, Journal of the Optical Society of America B, vol.16, issue.4, pp.637-650, 1999.
DOI : 10.1364/JOSAB.16.000637

M. Soileau, W. E. Williams, N. Mansour, and E. W. Van-stryland, Laser-Induced Damage And The Role Of Self-Focusing, Optical Engineering, vol.28, issue.10, pp.281133-281133, 1989.
DOI : 10.1117/12.7977098

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz et al., Self-Guided Propagation of Ultrashort IR Laser Pulses in Fused Silica, Physical Review Letters, vol.39, issue.21, p.213902, 2001.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevB.39.1337

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00463709

P. G. Debenedetti and F. H. Stillinger, Supercooled liquids and the glass transition, Nature, vol.102, issue.6825, pp.259-267, 2001.
DOI : 10.1021/jp973144h

H. Scholze, Glass: nature, structure, and properties, 2012.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4613-9069-5

M. I. Ojovan, Viscosity and Glass Transition in Amorphous Oxides, Advances in Condensed Matter Physics, vol.170, issue.5, 2008.
DOI : 10.1088/0953-8984/20/24/244106

P. Hrma, Glass viscosity as a function of temperature and composition: A model based on Adam???Gibbs equation, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol.354, issue.29, pp.3389-3399, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2008.02.019

T. Rouxel and J. Sangleboeuf, The brittle to ductile transition in a soda???lime???silica glass, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol.271, issue.3, pp.224-235, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-3093(00)00109-5

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01148247

R. Brückner, Properties and structure of vitreous silica. I, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol.5, issue.2, pp.123-175, 1970.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-3093(70)90190-0

A. Rosenfeld, I. V. Husakou, R. Hertel, and . Stoian, Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates, Phys. Rev. B, vol.77, p.104205, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ujm-00267265

H. Zeng, B. Poumellec, C. Fan, G. Chen, A. Erraji-chahid et al., Preparation of glass-ceramics with oriented nonlinear crystals: A review, Advances in Materials Science Research, vol.12, pp.89-134, 2012.

K. Wasai, G. Kaptay, K. Mukai, and N. Shinozaki, Modified classical homogeneous nucleation theory and a new minimum in free energy change: 1. A new minimum and Kelvin equation, pp.67-74, 2007.

S. B. Lee and N. J. Kim, Kinetics of crystallization in continuously cooled BMG, Materials Science and Engineering: A, vol.404, issue.1-2, pp.153-158, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.msea.2005.05.038

V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, N. S. Yuritsyn, and J. W. Schmelzer, Homogeneous crystal nucleation in silicate glasses: A 40 years perspective, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol.352, issue.26-27, pp.2681-2714, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2006.02.074

M. Shimizu, M. Sakakura, S. Kanehira, M. Nishi, Y. Shimotsuma et al., Formation mechanism of element distribution in glass under femtosecond laser irradiation, Optics Letters, vol.36, issue.11, pp.2161-2163, 2011.
DOI : 10.1364/OL.36.002161

D. Uhlmann, H. Yinnon, E. Zanotto, V. Fokin, and H. Jain, The formation of glassesTEM and XRD study of early crystallization of lithium disilicate glasses, Glass: Science and Technology, pp.217-227, 1983.

S. Claus, H. Kleykamp, and W. Smykatz-kloss, Phase equilibria in the Li4SiO4???Li2SiO3 region of the pseudobinary Li2O???SiO2 system, Phase equilibria in the Li 4 SiO 4 Li 2 SiO 3 region of the pseudobinary Li 2 O SiO 2 system, pp.8-11, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-3115(96)00022-0

A. R. West and F. P. Glasser, Crystallization of lithium trisilicate

R. I. Smith, R. A. Howie, A. R. West, A. Aragón-piña, and M. E. Villafuerte-castrejón, The structure of metastable lithium disilicate, Li2Si2O5, Acta Crystallographica Section C Crystal Structure Communications, vol.46, issue.3, pp.363-365, 1990.
DOI : 10.1107/S010827018900750X

M. Ibrahim and N. F. Bright, The Binary System Nb2O5- SiO2, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol.11, issue.5, pp.221-222, 1962.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1151-2916.1962.tb11130.x

N. Umesaki, M. Takahashi, M. Tatsumisago, and T. Minami, Structure of rapidly quenched glasses in the system Li2O-SiO2, Journal of Materials Science, vol.9, issue.96, pp.3473-3481, 1993.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02669331

J. Stanworth, Tellurite Glasses, Nature, vol.32, issue.4301, pp.581-582, 1952.
DOI : 10.1021/ja02195a007

T. Komatsu, Design and control of crystallization in oxide glasses, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol.428, pp.156-175, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2015.08.017

M. P. Graça, M. G. Ferreira-da-silva, and M. A. Valente, Structural and electrical characteristics of LiNbO3 embedded in a 34% SiO2 glass matrix, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol.28, issue.6, pp.1197-1203, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2007.09.045

O. S. Maksimova, L. V. Korzunova, and Z. P. Milberg, Properties and structure of glasses of the system Li 2 O-Nb 2 O 5 -SiO 2, Izv.Akad.Nauk Latv.SSR,Ser.Khim, vol.5, pp.530-534, 1975.

A. Stone, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, G. Stone, P. Gupta et al., Formation of ferroelectric single-crystal architectures in LaBGeO5 glass by femtosecond vs. continuous-wave lasers, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol.356, issue.52-54, pp.3059-3065, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2010.03.048

T. Komatsu, R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, R. Sato et al., Patterning of Non-Linear Optical Crystals in Glass by Laser-Induced Crystallization, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol.43, issue.7, pp.699-705, 2007.
DOI : 10.1063/1.2037198

T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, Transition metal atom heat processing for writing of crystal lines in glass, Applied Physics Letters, vol.4, issue.23, pp.231105-231105, 2006.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1151-2916.1965.tb14688.x

T. Komatsu, K. Koshiba, and T. Honma, Preferential growth orientation of laser-patterned LiNbO3 crystals in lithium niobium silicate glass, Journal of Solid State Chemistry, vol.184, issue.2, pp.411-418, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jssc.2010.12.016

R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, R. Sato et al., Writing of two-dimensional crystal curved lines at the surface of Sm2O3???Bi2O3???B2O3 glass by samarium atom heat processing, Solid State Communications, vol.136, issue.5, pp.273-277, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ssc.2005.08.004

S. Kawasaki, T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, R. Sato et al., Writing of crystal-dots and lines by YAG laser irradiation and their morphologies in samarium tellurite glasses, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol.325, issue.1-3, pp.61-69, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-3093(03)00365-X

N. Chayapiwut, T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, Synthesis of Sm3+-doped strontium barium niobate crystals in glass by samarium atom heat processing, Journal of Solid State Chemistry, vol.178, issue.11, pp.3507-3513, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jssc.2005.09.002

F. Suzuki, T. Honma, and T. Komatsu, Origin of periodic domain structure

T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, T. Komatsu, and R. Sato, Technique for writing of nonlinear optical single-crystal lines in glass, Applied Physics Letters, vol.43, issue.14, pp.2796-2798, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-0248(99)00351-6

A. F. Maciente, V. R. Mastelaro, A. L. Martinez, A. C. Hernandes, and C. A. Carneiro, Surface crystallization of ??-BaB2O4 phase using a CO2 laser source, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol.306, issue.3, pp.309-312, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-3093(02)01415-1

R. Vaish, V. Rodriguez, M. Maglione, J. Etourneau, and K. B. Varma, Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Crystalline Patterns on SrO-0.5Li2O-4.5B2O3 and BaO-0.5Na2O-4.5B2O3 Glasses and Optical Second Harmonic Generation, International Journal of Applied Glass Science, vol.117, issue.4, pp.350-357, 2010.
DOI : 10.1111/j.2041-1294.2010.00032.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00649653

P. Gupta, H. Jain, D. B. Williams, T. Honma, Y. Benino et al., Creation of Ferroelectric, Single-Crystal Architecture in Sm0.5La0.5BGeO5 Glass, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol.88, issue.[4], pp.110-114, 2008.
DOI : 10.2109/jcersj.110.398

P. Gupta, H. Jain, D. B. Williams, J. Toulouse, and I. Veltchev, Creation of tailored features by laser heating of Nd0.2La0.8BGeO5 glass, Optical Materials, vol.29, issue.4, pp.355-359, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.optmat.2005.08.036

B. Zhu, Y. Dai, H. Ma, S. Zhang, G. Lin et al., Femtosecond laser induced space-selective precipitation of nonlinear optical crystals in rare-earth-doped glasses, Optics Express, vol.15, issue.10, pp.6069-6074, 2007.
DOI : 10.1364/OE.15.006069

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu et al., Space-selective precipitation of functional crystals in glass by using a high repetition rate femtosecond laser, Chemical Physics Letters, vol.443, issue.4-6, pp.253-257, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cplett.2007.06.076

H. Sugita, T. Honma, Y. Benino, and T. Komatsu, Formation of LiNbO3 crystals at the surface of TeO2 -based glass by YAG laser-induced crystallization, Solid State Communications, vol.143, issue.6-7, pp.280-284, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ssc.2007.06.002

. Etourneau, Optical diffraction of second-harmonic signals in the LiBO 2 -Nb 2 O 5 glasses induced by selforganized LiNbO 3 crystallites, Appl. Phys. Lett, vol.87, p.3, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00095996

T. Honma, K. Koshiba, Y. Benino, and T. Komatsu, Writing of crystal lines and its optical properties of rare-earth ion (Er3+ and Sm3+) doped lithium niobate crystal on glass surface formed by laser irradiation, Optical Materials, vol.31, issue.2, pp.315-319, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.optmat.2008.04.015

Y. Ochi, T. Meguro, and K. Kakegawa, Orientated crystallization of fresnoite glass-ceramics by using a thermal gradient, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol.26, issue.4-5, pp.627-630, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2005.07.044

N. M. Ferreira, F. M. Costa, R. N. Nogueira, and M. P. Graça, Lithium niobate bulk crystallization promoted by CO2 laser radiation, Applied Surface Science, vol.258, issue.23, pp.9457-9460, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.apsusc.2011.08.050

K. Gerth, C. Rüssel, R. Keding, P. Schleevoigt, and H. Dunken, Oriented crystallisation of lithium niobate containing glass ceramic in an electric field and determination of the crystallographic orientation by infrared spectroscopy, Phys. Chem. Glasses, vol.40, pp.135-139, 1999.

F. Luo, G. Lin, H. Pan, Q. Chen, J. Qiu et al., Elemental redistribution in glass induced by a 250-kHz femtosecond laser, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol.357, issue.11-13, pp.2384-2386, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2010.11.094

J. Del-hoyo, R. M. Vazquez, B. Sotillo, T. T. Fernandez, J. Siegel et al., Control of waveguide properties by tuning femtosecond laser induced compositional changes, Applied Physics Letters, vol.105, issue.13
DOI : 10.1364/OME.3.001716

. Solis, Role of ion migrations in ultrafast laser written tellurite glass waveguides, Opt. Express, vol.22, pp.15298-15304, 2014.

M. Sakakura, T. Kurita, M. Shimizu, K. Yoshimura, Y. Shimotsuma et al., Shape control of elemental distributions inside a glass by simultaneous femtosecond laser irradiation at multiple spots, Optics Letters, vol.38, issue.23, pp.4939-4942, 2013.
DOI : 10.1364/OL.38.004939

B. Matthias and J. Remeika, Ferroelectricity in the Ilmenite Structure, Physical Review, vol.76, issue.12, p.1886, 1949.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRev.76.1215

P. Bordui, R. Norwood, D. Jundt, and M. Fejer, Preparation and characterization of off???congruent lithium niobate crystals, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.26, issue.2, pp.875-879, 1992.
DOI : 10.1109/3.44926

L. O. Svaasand, M. Eriksrud, G. Nakken, and A. P. Grande, Solid-solution range of LiNbO3, Journal of Crystal Growth, vol.22, issue.3, pp.230-232, 1974.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-0248(74)90099-2

H. M. O-'bryan, P. K. Gallagher, and C. Brandle, Congruent Composition and Li-Rich Phase Boundary of LiNbO3, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol.68, issue.3, pp.493-496, 1985.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-0248(72)90329-6

M. Wöhlecke, G. Corradi, and K. Betzler, Optical methods to characterise the composition and homogeneity of lithium niobate single crystals, Applied Physics B Laser and Optics, vol.4, issue.Suppl. 26-2, pp.323-330, 1996.
DOI : 10.1080/00150199408215933

M. Lundberg, The Crystal Structure of LiNb3O8., Acta Chemica Scandinavica, vol.25, pp.3337-3346, 1971.
DOI : 10.3891/acta.chem.scand.25-3337

H. Akazawa and M. Shimada, thin films, physica status solidi (a), vol.88, issue.11, pp.2823-2827, 2006.
DOI : 10.1002/pssa.200669502

R. Subasri and O. M. Sreedharan, Thermodynamic stability of Li 3 NbO 4 by emf measurements using a novel composite electrolyte," Solid State Ion, pp.341-346, 1997.

N. Yabuuchi, M. Takeuchi, M. Nakayama, H. Shiiba, M. Ogawa et al., -based system with cation-disordered rocksalt structure, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.119, issue.0, pp.7650-7655, 2015.
DOI : 10.1107/S0909049500016964

A. Glass, K. Nassau, and T. Negran, Ionic conductivity of quenched alkali niobate and tantalate glasses, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.3, issue.9, pp.4808-4811, 1978.
DOI : 10.1080/00150197208235297

M. Tatsumisago, A. Hamada, T. Minami, and M. Tanaka, Preparation and Properties of Quenched Li2O-BaO-Nb2O5 Glasses, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol.3, issue.3, pp.575-577, 1982.
DOI : 10.1016/0025-5408(74)90109-3

M. Tatsumisago, A. Hamada, T. Minami, and M. Tanaka, Structure and Properties of Rapidly Quenched Li2O-Al2O3-Nb2O5 Glasses, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol.28, issue.6, pp.890-892, 1983.
DOI : 10.1063/1.328164

.. D. Zelmon, D. L. Small, and D. Jundt, Infrared corrected Sellmeier coefficients for congruently grown lithium niobate and 5 mol% magnesium oxide ???doped lithium niobate, Journal of the Optical Society of America B, vol.14, issue.12, pp.3319-3322, 1997.
DOI : 10.1364/JOSAB.14.003319

U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, Refractive indices of lithium niobate as a function of temperature, wavelength, and composition: A generalized fit, Physical Review B, vol.41, issue.21, p.15613, 1993.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1659225

M. Weber, CRC handbook of laser science and technology. Optical materials, Part 1-Nonlinear optical properties/radiation damage, 1986.

M. Graça, M. Valente, and M. F. Da-silva, Electrical properties of lithium niobium silicate glasses, J

V. Champagnon and . Califano, Second-order optical non-linearity initiated in Li 2 O-Nb 2 O 5 -SiO 2 and Li 2 O-ZnO-Nb 2 O 5 -SiO 2 glasses by formation of polar and centrosymmetric nanostructures, J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol.354, pp.873-881, 2008.

C. Fan, Contribution to nano or micro crystallization induction in silica-based glass by femtosecond laser irradiation Doctoral dissertation, 2013.

C. Fan, B. Poumellec, H. Zeng, M. Lancry, W. Yang et al., Directional Writing Dependence of Birefringence in Multicomponent Silica-based Glasses with Ultrashort Laser Irradiation, Journal of Laser Micro/Nanoengineering, vol.6, issue.2, pp.158-163, 2011.
DOI : 10.2961/jlmn.2011.02.0011

E. Prasad, M. Sayer, H. Vyas, C. Blanc, Y. Roques et al., Li+ conductivity in lithium niobate: silica glasses, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol.40, issue.1-3, pp.119-134, 1980.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-3093(80)90097-6

M. Sakakura, M. Shimizu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, Temperature distribution and modification mechanism inside glass with heat accumulation during 250kHz irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses, Applied Physics Letters, vol.93, issue.23, p.231112, 2008.
DOI : 10.1364/OE.15.016800

M. Beresna, T. Gertus, R. Toma?i?nas, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, Three-Dimensional Modeling of the Heat-Affected Zone in Laser Machining Applications, Laser Chemistry, vol.2, issue.1, p.2008, 2008.
DOI : 10.1038/nphoton.2007.276

F. Hashimoto, S. Richter, S. Nolte, Y. Ozeki, and K. Itoh, Time-resolved Micro-Raman Measurement of Temperature Dynamics during High-Repetition-Rate Ultrafast Laser Microprocessing, Journal of Laser Micro/Nanoengineering, vol.10, issue.1, p.29, 2015.
DOI : 10.2961/jlmn.2015.01.0006

/. Lib, /. Props, and . Panos, Lithium oxideThermal Conductivity: XII, Temperature dependence of conductivity for single-phase ceramics, J. Am. Ceram. Soc, vol.38, pp.251-255, 1955.

K. Wong, Properties of lithium niobate (IET, 2002.

R. A. Morgan, K. I. Kang, C. C. Hsu, C. L. Koliopoulos, and N. Peyghambarian, Measurement of the thermal diffusivity of nonlinear anisotropic crystals using optical interferometry, Applied Optics, vol.26, issue.24, pp.5266-5271, 1987.
DOI : 10.1364/AO.26.005266

M. Shimizu, M. Sakakura, M. Ohnishi, Y. Shimotsuma, T. Nakaya et al., Mechanism of heat-modification inside a glass after irradiation with high-repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.108, issue.7, p.73533, 2010.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1151-2916.1925.tb16731.x

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, and S. Guizard, Comparison Between Plasma Properties And Damage Thresholds In Doped Silica Exposed To IR Temtosecond Laser, Journal of Laser Micro/Nanoengineering, vol.7, issue.2, pp.217-225, 2012.
DOI : 10.2961/jlmn.2012.02.0016

. Nolte, Ultrashort pulse laser processing of silica at high repetition rates ? from network change to residual strain, Int J Appl Glass Sci Accepted, 2016.

M. Dussauze, E. Fargin, A. Malakho, V. Rodriguez, T. Buffeteau et al., Correlation of large SHG responses with structural characterization in borophosphate niobium glasses, Optical Materials, vol.28, issue.12, pp.1417-1422, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.optmat.2005.08.026

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00108369

R. M. Shribak and . Oldenbourg, Techniques for fast and sensitive measurements of two-dimensional birefringence distributions, Applied Optics, vol.42, issue.16, pp.3009-3017, 2003.
DOI : 10.1364/AO.42.003009

R. Salh, Defect Related Luminescence in Silicon Dioxide Network: A Review, 2011.
DOI : 10.5772/22607

J. Goldstein, D. E. Newbury, D. C. Joy, C. E. Lyman, P. Echlin et al., Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis, 2013.

O. Engler and V. Randle, Introduction to texture analysis: macrotexture, microtexture, and orientation mapping, 2009.
DOI : 10.1201/9781420063660

L. Brewer and J. Michael, Risks of 'cleaning'electron backscatter diffraction data, Microsc, pp.10-15, 2010.

S. I. Wright and M. M. Nowell, EBSD Image Quality Mapping, Microscopy and Microanalysis, vol.60, issue.01, pp.72-84, 2006.
DOI : 10.1180/minmag.1996.060.403.01

R. Petrov, L. Kestens, A. Wasilkowska, and Y. Houbaert, Microstructure and texture of a lightly deformed TRIP-assisted steel characterized by means of the EBSD technique, Materials Science and Engineering: A, vol.447, issue.1-2, pp.285-297, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.msea.2006.10.023

R. Wirth, Focused Ion Beam (FIB) combined with SEM and TEM: Advanced analytical tools for studies of chemical composition, microstructure and crystal structure in geomaterials on a nanometre scale, Chemical Geology, vol.261, issue.3-4, pp.217-229, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2008.05.019

T. Langlois and . Moreno, LUCIA, a microfocus soft XAS beamline, Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B, vol.246, pp.269-274, 2006.

B. Fultz and J. M. Howe, Transmission electron microscopy and diffractometry of materials, 2012.

P. W. Hawkes and J. C. Spence, Llabador and P. Moretto, Applications of nuclear microprobe in the life sciences: An efficient analytical technique for the research in biology and medicine, Science of microscopy, vol.1, issue.224, 1998.

A. W. Miziolek, V. Palleschi, and I. Schechter, Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, 2006.

B. Poumellec, M. Lancry, R. Desmarchelier, E. Hervé, F. Brisset et al., Asymmetric Orientational Writing in glass with femtosecond laser irradiation, Optical Materials Express, vol.3, issue.10, pp.1586-1599, 2013.
DOI : 10.1364/OME.3.001586

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00926558

I. Nakai, J. Akimoto, M. Imafuku, R. Miyawaki, Y. Sugitani et al., Characterization of the amorphous state in metamict silicates and niobates by EXAFS and XANES analyses, Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, vol.30, issue.62
DOI : 10.1524/zkri.1980.152.1-2.69

C. Sugiura, M. Kitamura, and S. Muramatsu, Niobium LIII and LII X-ray absorption-edge spectra of Nb2O5 and NH4NbF6, Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol.49, issue.9, pp.1095-1099, 1988.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-3697(88)90159-X

T. Vitova, X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of structurally modified lithium niobate crystals Doctoral dissertation, 2008.

D. Zhang, J. Gao, P. Hua, D. Yu, and E. Y. Pun, Crystal Using Chemical Method, Analytical Chemistry, vol.85, issue.3, pp.1940-1944, 2013.
DOI : 10.1021/ac303514f

H. C. Zeng, K. Tanaka, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, Crystallization and glass formation in 50Li2O??50Nb2O5 and 25Li2O??25Nb2O5??50SiO2, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol.209, issue.1-2, pp.112-121, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-3093(96)00551-0

H. Vigouroux, Etude de vitrocéramiques optiques pour le doublement de fréquence Doctoral dissertation (Université Sciences et Technologies-Bordeaux, 2012.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevi?ius, P. G. Kazansky, T. Taylor, and A. V. Kavokin, Exciton mediated self-organization in glass driven by ultrashort light pulses, Applied Physics Letters, vol.101, issue.5, p.53120, 2012.
DOI : 10.1364/OME.2.000789

M. Beresna, M. Gecevi?ius, and P. G. Kazansky, Polarization sensitive elements fabricated by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass [Invited], Optical Materials Express, vol.1, issue.4, pp.783-795, 2011.
DOI : 10.1364/OME.1.000783

J. Wen, G. Peng, W. Luo, Z. Xiao, Z. Chen et al., Gamma irradiation effect on Rayleigh scattering in low water peak single-mode optical fibers, Optics Express, vol.19, issue.23, pp.23271-23278, 2011.
DOI : 10.1364/OE.19.023271

S. Loranger, M. Gagné, V. Lambin-iezzi, and R. Kashyap, Rayleigh scatter based order of magnitude increase in distributed temperature and strain sensing by simple UV exposure of optical fibre, Scientific Reports, vol.22, issue.1, 2015.
DOI : 10.1364/OE.22.000387

M. Lines, Scattering losses in optic fiber materials. I. A new parametrization, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.60, issue.11, pp.4052-4057, 1984.
DOI : 10.1103/RevModPhys.42.317

Y. Liao, W. Pan, Y. Cui, L. Qiao, Y. Bellouard et al., Formation of in-volume nanogratings with sub-100-nm periods in glass by femtosecond laser irradiation, Optics Letters, vol.40, issue.15, pp.3623-3626, 2015.
DOI : 10.1364/OL.40.003623

A. Rudenko, J. Colombier, and T. E. Itina, From random inhomogeneities to periodic nanostructures induced in bulk silica by ultrashort laser, Physical Review B, vol.20, issue.7, p.75427, 2016.
DOI : 10.1002/lpor.201500272

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ujm-01340985

X. Ma and D. Li, Multiscale Discrete Crystal Growth in the Solidification of 20SiMnMo5 Steel, Crystal Growth & Design, vol.16, issue.6, pp.3163-3169, 2016.
DOI : 10.1021/acs.cgd.5b01804

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing, Nature Photonics, vol.32, issue.2, pp.99-104, 2008.
DOI : 10.1038/37323

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of optics: electromagnetic theory of propagation, interference and diffraction of light (CUP Archive, 2000.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9781139644181

I. H. Malitson, Interspecimen Comparison of the Refractive Index of Fused Silica*,???, Journal of the Optical Society of America, vol.55, issue.10, pp.1205-1209, 1965.
DOI : 10.1364/JOSA.55.001205

E. Simova, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, J. Liu, R. Pattathil et al., Rewritable nanogratings in fused silica using a focused femtosecond laser beam, 2006 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and 2006 Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, p.4, 2006.
DOI : 10.1109/CLEO.2006.4627903

M. Rose, A history of the laser: A trip through the light fantastic-Presenting a timeline of notable laser-related scientific accomplishments, Photonics Spectra, vol.44, p.58, 2010.

J. Hecht, Short history of laser development, Optical Engineering, vol.49, issue.9, pp.91002-091002, 2010.
DOI : 10.1117/1.3483597

R. Paschotta, chirp' in the encyclopedia of laser physics and technology, 2008.

K. L. Vora, Three-dimensional nanofabrication of silver structures in polymer with direct laser writing, 2014.

L. Skuja, Optically active oxygen-deficiency-related centers in amorphous silicon dioxide, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol.239, issue.1-3, pp.16-48, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-3093(98)00720-0

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, L. Canioni, A. Brocas, and L. Sarger, Optical properties of infrared femtosecond laser-modified fused silica and application to waveguide fabrication, Journal of the Optical Society of America B, vol.22, issue.10, pp.2138-2143, 2005.
DOI : 10.1364/JOSAB.22.002138

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01552707

A. Zoubir, C. Rivero, R. Grodsky, K. Richardson, M. Richardson et al., Laser-induced defects in fused silica by femtosecond IR irradiation, Physical Review B, vol.99, issue.333, p.224117, 2006.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.74.2248

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00111127

A. Podlipensky, V. Grebenev, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, Ionization and photomodification of Ag nanoparticles in soda-lime glass by 150 fs laser irradiation: a luminescence study, Journal of Luminescence, vol.109, issue.3-4, pp.135-142, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-2313(04)00115-2

. Juodkazis, Photoluminescence from voids created by femtosecond-laser pulses inside cubic-BN, Opt

C. Zhang, Z. Dong, G. You, R. Zhu, S. Qian et al., Femtosecond pulse excited two-photon photoluminescence and second harmonic generation in ZnO nanowires, Applied Physics Letters, vol.89, issue.4, pp.42117-42500, 2006.
DOI : 10.1038/nature00912

M. Tatsumisago, T. Minami, and M. Tanaka, Rapid Quenching Technique Using Thermal-Image Furnace for Glass Preparation, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol.62, issue.1, pp.97-98, 1981.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-3093(70)90197-3

P. Sarjeant and R. Roy, A new approach to the prediction of glass formation, Materials Research Bulletin, vol.3, issue.3, pp.265-279, 1968.
DOI : 10.1016/0025-5408(68)90127-X

T. Suzuki and A. Anthony, Rapid quenching on the binary systems of high temperature oxides, Materials Research Bulletin, vol.9, issue.6, pp.745-753, 1974.
DOI : 10.1016/0025-5408(74)90109-3

L. Journées, Verre " auront lieu à Bordeaux, 2016.

P. Stanford, X. Ultrafast, and . Seminar, SLAC national accelerator laboratory, (travel grant from DOE) 9) Workshop on Materials for Optics and Optoelectronics, 2016.

L. Première-journée-de, Ecole Doctorale 2 MIB de l, 2015.

E. Polytechnique and F. , Niagara Falls, NY, USA (oral presentation) 12) Advanced School on Glasses and Glass-Ceramics, 100 positions available for top-quality Masters and PhD students (50 Brazilians and 50 foreigner from all over the world), 11) 14 th International Conference on the Physics of Non-Crystalline Solids 13) 6 th Workshop for New Research in Glass Science and Technology, 2014.