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Etude en systèmes digestifs artificiels de la survie et de la pathogénicité des Escherichia Coli entérohémorragiques (EHEC). Influence de la matrice alimentaire et de l'administration de souches probiotiques.

Abstract : The enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are zoonotic pathogens that cause food-borne infection withwhich leads to life-threatening damage in humans. EHEC survival and expression of virulence genes in the humandigestive track are key factors in the pathogenesis of these infections, but little is known, mainly due to lack ofappropriate study models. The absence of specific treatment has led to an interest in preventive and/or alternativemeasures healing, such as the use of probiotics. The objective of this study is the behavior of EHEC strains in theentire digestive tract and the influence of probiotic strains, using in vitro and in vivo complementary approaches.In vitro, in the upper gastrointestinal tract, a bacterial mortality was observed in the stomach, followed bya bacterial resumption in the distal segment of the small intestine. Moreover, survival depends on both theEHEC strain/serotype studied and the food matrix in which the bacteria are ingested. In simulated humancolon conditions, EHEC was progressively eliminated from the bioreactor and the major virulence genes (stx1encoding Shiga-toxin 1 and eae encoding intimin) are overexpressed in the hours following the inoculation ofpathogen. Probiotic yeasts Saccharomyces genus does not modify the survival of the pathogen in the in vitro colonicenvironment, that they be administered in treatment "curative" or "prophylactic". Still, the administration ofS. cerevisiae CNCM I-3856 allows (i) to favorably modulate fermentation activity of the intestinal microbiota, byincreasing the production of acetate and reducing that of butyrate and (ii) reduce significantly the expression ofstx1. Furthermore, the effect of pathogenic and probiotic on colonic microbiota is donor-dependent, supporting thehypothesis that factors associated with the host, as the microbiota could condition the clinical course of EHEC andefficiency a probiotic strategy. Finally, in a murine model of ileal loops, preventive administration of S. cerevisiaeCNCM I-3856 significantly limits the interaction of O157:H7 with the Peyer’s patches and results hemorrhagic lesions.These results confirms the interest of probiotic strategy in controlling EHEC infections. Further transcriptomestudies are warranted for the pathogen in the human digestive environment, with or without probiotics for the betterunderstanding of the pathophysiology of EHEC and so on the mechanisms involved in the antagonistic effect ofprobiotics.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, December 6, 2017 - 4:20:22 PM
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Jonathan Thevenot. Etude en systèmes digestifs artificiels de la survie et de la pathogénicité des Escherichia Coli entérohémorragiques (EHEC). Influence de la matrice alimentaire et de l'administration de souches probiotiques.. Microbiologie et Parasitologie. Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014CLF1PP04⟩. ⟨tel-01657398⟩

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