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TLR2/1 Orchestrate Human Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Response to Gram+ Bacteria

Abstract : Infections by Gram+ bacteria are worldwide life-threatening diseases where new studies are highlighting the pathological role of Type I interferon (I IFN). Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are the main source of Type I IFN following viral sensing. Recent evidence suggests that human pDCs might sense bacteria. The receptors mediating bacterial sensing in pDCs are not known. During my thesis, I focused on the characterization of pDCs TLR2/1 receptors expression. These two receptors allow pDCs to sense Gram+ bacterial lipoproteins. My work showed that human primary pDCs express TLR1 and TLR2 at the mRNA and protein level. I show that pDCs respond to the Gram+ bacteria M. tuberculosis, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes through TLR2/1 pathway. In human primary pDC, I found that in response to bacterial lipoproteins up-regulation of costimulatory molecules is TLR1-dependent while IFN-I secretion is TLR2-dependent. TLR2 and TLR1 signalling play a different role in the pDCs priming of naïve CD4+ T-cells, inducing proliferation and differentiation to TH1/TH2/Treg subsets. I further demonstrate that these differences rely on the diverse signaling pathway activated by the two TLRs. This work provides the rationale to explore pDCs activity in human bacterial infection.
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Salvatore Raieli. TLR2/1 Orchestrate Human Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Response to Gram+ Bacteria. Innate immunity. Université Paris-Saclay, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016SACLS495⟩. ⟨tel-01656730⟩

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