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Modélisation de la végétation boréale et de sa dynamique dans le modèle de surface continentale ORCHIDEE

Abstract : Climate evolution over the next ten to hundred years involves many questions, linked to the impact of man. Indeed, greenhouse gases emissions since the beginning of the industrial era lead to an increase in temperature. The latter can affect terrestrial ecosystems, particularly in boreal regions where observed and projected temperature increase is larger than in mid-latitudes. Evolution of these ecosystems can trigger climate feedbacks. For example, the currently observed « Arctic greening » phenomenon could enhance the warming via a decrease in albedo due to the increase in vegetation cover. In order to address these questions, climate models were developped, including continental surface models taking into account the fluxes of mass and energy. In this thesis, such a model was used, the continental surface scheme ORCHIDEE, which includes a succinct description of boreal vegetation. The aim of this work was thus the implementation and the modeling of boreal vegetation.In order to describe high-latitude vegetation, i.e. toundras and steppes, new plant functional types (PFTs) were integrated into the model based on existing PFTs. First, non-vascular plants (NVPs) were integrated to represent lichens and bryophytes found in desert toundras and peatlands, then shrubs to represent an intermediate stratum between trees and grasses in toundras, and finally boreal C3 grasses to distinguish vegetation found in boreal steppes and temperate grasslands. The description of this boreal vegetation was accompanied by the integration of new charachteristic processes, from the implementation of new interactions such as the protection of shrubs by snow in winter, to the simple choice of new PFT parameters such as the lower photosynthetic capacity of boreal C3 grasses compared to temperate C3 grasses, through the modification of existing processes such as the stomatal conductance of NVPs. Other processes linked to vegetation were also updated or corrected. Finally, to model the dynamics of boreal vegetation, new PFTs were integrated into the initial description in the model.Those changes enabled the modeling of boreal vegetation and its impact on other variables (mass or energy fluxes), either using a prescribed vegetation (simulations on the recent period), or using a dynamical vegetation (recent and future simulations using RCPs 4.5 and 8.5). Simulations using the prescribed vegetation indicated that vegetation behaviour is better represented with the new PFTs. With original PFTs, productivity and biomass were overestimated in boreal regions, and lead to an underestimation of albedo and an overestimation of transpiration. Simulations using a dynamical vegetation demonstrated the ability of the model, using the new boreal vegetation, to represent current-day biomes as well as « Arctic greening ». However, the shrubification observed in several studies was not reproduced. Similarly, the impact of new PFTs on other model outputs is important, with for example a decrease in productivity or albedo in winter compared to the original vegetation. Thus, the introduction of boreal PFTs generally resulted in a better description of Arctic ecosystems and of the exchanges of energy and mass with the atmosphere. On the other hand, the protection of permafrost by NVPs was not as substantial as expected and was compensated by an increase in soil humidity (due to shrubs and boreal grasses).The introduction of the new boreal vegetation in the ORCHIDEE model thus seems relevant, and highlights the importance of representing these ecosystems. This work opens up new perspectives to improve future and past climate simulations. The next step consists in modeling vegetation since the Holocene into the future in order to simulate the current amounts of carbone in the permafrost, and to project the outcome of these stocks in the context of climate change and permafrost melt.
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Submitted on : Monday, December 4, 2017 - 11:36:19 AM
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Arsène Druel. Modélisation de la végétation boréale et de sa dynamique dans le modèle de surface continentale ORCHIDEE. Climatologie. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAU014⟩. ⟨tel-01654663⟩

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