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Impact des facteurs micro-environnementaux de l'hôte sur la colonisation instestinale des Escherichia Coli adhérents et invasifs.

Abstract : The etiology of Crohn's disease (CD) involves disorders in host genetic factors and intestinal microbiota. Ileal mucosa of CD patients is often abnormally colonized by adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC). These strains isolated from the intestinal mucosa of CD patients are able to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). This adhesion to IECs promotes the invasion of cells by the bacteria. Furthermore, the invasive ability of AIEC strains allows bacteria to translocate across the human intestinal epithelium, move into the deep tissues and activate immune cells continuously upon arrival. Thus AIEC could be involved in the inflammatory state of the intestinal mucous membrane.The aim of this study was to identify components of AIEC virulence, which might favor their implantation in the gut of CD patients and to define the role of several chemical factors from the ileal environment. Here, we reported a protease called Vat-AIEC from AIEC which favors the penetration of AIEC through the mucus layer and enhances gut colonization. The screening of E. coli strains isolated from CD patients revealed a preferential vat-AIEC association with AIEC strains belonging to the B2 phylogroup. Besides, Vat-AIEC transcription was increased with bile salts from the ileum environment.Then a global RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of E. coli LF82 has been used to observe the impact of bile salts on the expression of bacterial genes. The results demonstrate the explosive effect of bile salts with a dysregulation of about 40% of the genome, with a global upregulation of genes involved in degradation and downregulation of those implicated in several biosynthesis. Our results show that LF82 use ethanolamine as a nitrogen source and propane diol as a carbon source, which can favor their colonization in the gut compared to the other bacteria. We also studied virulence genes expression in the presence of bile salts. They increase the expression of several virulence factors like the IbeA invasion, the type 6 secretion systems and the yersiniabactin. Furthermore, we noticed an increased expression of genes implicated in biofilm formation. These results improve the understanding of the global regulatory network in the presence of bile salts and thus of AIEC implantation in the human gut of CD patients.
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Submitted on : Sunday, December 3, 2017 - 11:45:57 PM
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Lucie Gibold-Lyonne. Impact des facteurs micro-environnementaux de l'hôte sur la colonisation instestinale des Escherichia Coli adhérents et invasifs.. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016CLF1MM22⟩. ⟨tel-01654425⟩

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