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Flux de gènes et évolution des ressources génétiques du mil (Pennisetum glaucum) dans le Bassin du Lac Tchad : rôle de la diversité socio-culturelle

Abstract : The resilience of sub-Saharan farming systems to environmental and socioeconomic disturbances is partly based on the maintenance of agro-biodiversity, but also on preserving the right for farmers to reproduce and freely exchange seeds and related knowledge. However, few data are actually available on effective seed flow and on mechanisms modulating gene flow and genetic introgression between landraces grown in Sahelian farming systems. For pearl millet especially, there are only very few data on the relationship between diversity of this crop on the one hand and the socio-cultural diversity of farmers on the other hand. In the first part of my thesis, I was interested in assessing a potential relationship between ethnolinguistic diversity and population genetic structure of pearl millet in the Lake Chad Basin. Analysis of molecular polymorphisms suggests the existence of social barrier to seed flow among ethnolinguistic groups. However, these barriers are not sufficient to prevent genetic introgression between pearl millet populations cultivated by farmers belonging to different ethno-linguistic groups. In the second chapter, I focused on the role of local adaptation on gene flow. The results led me to propose the hypothesis that gene flow between early and late landraces are higher in the northern regions where rainfall is weak. Finally in the third part, I have quantified the biochemical compound of pearl millet seeds belonging to different varieties that show different uses or culinary preferences among farmers belonging to different ethnolingiuistic groups. I used a combined approach of proteomics and metabolics. Among the 1072 protein spots quantified only 7 distinguish the very photoperiodic non photoperiodic landrace. Metabolomics data suggest the presence of fungi, possibly endophytes, in some of the samples analyzed.
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Submitted on : Sunday, December 3, 2017 - 11:42:40 PM
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Abdel Kader Naino Jika. Flux de gènes et évolution des ressources génétiques du mil (Pennisetum glaucum) dans le Bassin du Lac Tchad : rôle de la diversité socio-culturelle. Génétique des populations [q-bio.PE]. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE); Université Abdou Moumouni, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016SACLS180⟩. ⟨tel-01654418⟩



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