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La plasticité et la structure du chant de la fauvette à tête noire étudiées chez des populations migratrices et sédentaires

Abstract : The aim of the thesis was to study the structure, function and plasticity over time of the song of a male adult bird, the blackcap Sylvia atricapilla. The influence of different migratory behaviors on the song characteristics, on the dialect maintenance and on learning has also been studied in two populations, a migratory one (represented by two groups in Paris) and a sedentary one (represented by 3 groups in Corsica). The song of this species consists of two parts with distinct sound characteristics, the warble and the whistle. Our playback experiments show that both parts trigger male territorial response. Such a song in two parts probably allows blackcaps to transmit different information for different audiences, close and distant, males and females. Genetic analyzes with microsatellites show no genetic structure of groups and populations. Nevertheless, we have shown the existence of micro-geographical variations in the composition of syllables and sequences of syllables in the whistle part. Although the turnover of individuals is higher among migrants than among sedentary populations, the two populations have similar syllables and phrases sharing within groups. However, migratory birds, compared to sedentary ones, have a syllable repertoire size twice as large and a repertoire of phrase sharing much smaller. The survey of sedentary individuals over several consecutive years has shown that the species show a vocal plasticity since a greater sharing of syllables and of phrases is observed intra year than between years within groups. Although individuals seem able to modify their songs every year, we didn’t succeed in showing with playback experiments in natural environment that adults males were able to learn new syllables or new phrases.
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Juliette Linossier. La plasticité et la structure du chant de la fauvette à tête noire étudiées chez des populations migratrices et sédentaires. Biologie animale. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015SACLS197⟩. ⟨tel-01654414⟩

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