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Caractérisation et modélisation de la dynamique des stocks de matière organique profonde des sols amazoniens

Abstract : Recent results have shown that equatorial podzols store large amounts of carbon in their deep Bh horizons. This leads to two main questions: (1) how and at what kinetics these soils were formed, (2) how climate change could induce atmospheric carbon production that could impact the global climate system.In this context, we have developed a model that allows to constrain carbon fluxes both by the observed C stocks and their 14C age. In a sufficiently simplified situation, we have established a formal relationship between the C stock evolution and its 14C age. Applied to Amazonian podzols, our model has brought new and unexpected results. It has been shown that the surface horizons of the most hydromorphic podzolized areas are the largest contributors of MOD transferred to the hydrographic network then to the sea. It is observed that the formation of Bh is only possible by considering two compartments, fast and slow. The estimate of their formation time (low estimate) allowed to differentiate between relatively young podzols (formation time 15 – 25 ky) developed on relatively recent Holocene sediments and old podzols (formation 180 – 290 ky) developed on older sediments. The carbon accumulation rate in the studied podzols ranges from 0.54 to 3.17 gC m-2 y-1, which corresponds to a carbon sequestration around 3 1011 gC an-1, which is significant at the geological scales.Column percolation experiments allowed us to show the reactivity of the Bh material and the presence, despite very high C/N ratios (63 on average), of a significant bacterial activity which modifies the nature of the MOD which percolates through it. This MOD has the capacity to transport Al and Fe in the form of complex organometallic complexes capable of migrating through very kaolinitic materials. These results contribute to the understanding of the transfers of pedologically formed MOD in the deep aquifers.Under the hypothesis of the appearance of a climate with contrasting seasons, we have been able to show that a 90-day period without rain after the disappearance of the perched water-table would not allow to reach the point of entry of air by drying of superficial horizons. Nevertheless, assuming an air entry, the extrapolation of the experimentally measured mineralization rates under oxic conditions results in a production of atmospheric C around 2.0 1014 g of CO2 per year, which may involve a positive feedback from the global climate system.
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Submitted on : Friday, December 1, 2017 - 11:57:55 AM
Last modification on : Saturday, May 30, 2020 - 3:12:30 AM

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Cédric Doupoux. Caractérisation et modélisation de la dynamique des stocks de matière organique profonde des sols amazoniens. Chimie inorganique. Université de Toulon, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017TOUL0003⟩. ⟨tel-01653309⟩

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