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Changement climatique et agriculture

Abstract : Global climate is warming, and the effects of climate change are associated with a lot of uncertainty. Not only average temperatures are expected to rise, but also the occurrence of extreme events such as floods or droughts. Agriculture is particularly at risk, due to the importance of weather conditions in production. This thesis therefore aims at investigating the relationship between weather variations and agricultural production, to better assess the potential effects of climate change on agriculture, relying on both theoretical and empirical methods. The first two chapters focus on developing countries and provide two empirical studies based on Indian data at the individual farm level that link climate to agricultural production and profits and to consumption decisions. We find contrasted results, with an overall damaging effect of climate change scenarios on Indian agricultural production and profits, especially for farmers in southern India. Irrigation may however help mitigating the losses, as well as crop mixing, particularly for small farms. The last two chapters consider developed countries. The first step focuses on crop yields in Europe. Under the tested climate scenarios, wheat yields are projected to slightly increase by the end of the 21$^\textrm{st}$ century relative to the observed yields from the past 25 years. These small gains are however accompanied by a lot of regional heterogeneity. For European corn yields, the projections highlight small gains in by the middle of the 21$^\textrm{st}$ century, followed by relatively higher losses in the long run. The second step relies on a general equilibrium approach, and aims at investigating the short-run impacts of weather shocks on business cycles, through their damaging effects on agriculture. Increasing the variance of climate shocks in accordance with forthcoming climate change leads to a sizeable increase in the volatility of key macroeconomic variables, such as production and inflation.
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Submitted on : Friday, December 1, 2017 - 9:13:34 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, October 14, 2020 - 4:13:02 AM


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Ewen Gallic. Changement climatique et agriculture. Economics and Finance. Université Rennes 1, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017REN1G007⟩. ⟨tel-01653099⟩



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