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Evolution des cycles de vie : modélisation et évolution expérimentale sur la levure Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Abstract : Sexual reproduction leads to an alternation between haploid and diploid phases, whose relative length varies widely across taxa. The proportion of the life cycle spent in the haploid and diploid phase has important consequences on a number of adaptive processes. This thesis combines theoretical approaches exploring the effect of genetic and ecological factors on the evolution of life cycles, and experimental work on the effects of ploidy on the evolution of reproductive isolation between populations. The theoretical part consisted in integrating ecological components into genetic models for the evolution of life cycles. In particular, I explored the interplay between niche differentiation between haploids and diploids (known to favour the maintenance of biphasic life cycles, involving development in both phases) and the effect of deleterious alleles (known to favour either haploid or diploid life cycles). While niche differentiation (or more simply intrinsic fitness differences between phases) stabilizes biphasic cycles, the presence of deleterious alleles often lead to evolutionary branching and to the stable coexistence of alleles coding for haploid and diploid cycles. Branching is prevented, however, when temporal environmental fluctuations are included into the model. The experimental part consisted in comparing the dynamics of reproductive isolation between small populations of haploid and diploid yeasts with elevated mutation rate. The results show that while haploid hybrids tend to have a lower fitness than their parents, diploid hybrids benefit from heterosis in the F1 generation, and still have a higher fitness than the diploid homozygous parents in the F2 generation. However, the variance of hybrid fitness was much higher in haploids, with the production of some highly fit genotypes.
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Marie Rescan. Evolution des cycles de vie : modélisation et évolution expérimentale sur la levure Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Evolution [q-bio.PE]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PA066523⟩. ⟨tel-01653088⟩

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