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La détection et la caractérisation de coronavirus et astrovirus chez les chiroptères au Cambodge et au Laos

Abstract : Zoonoses are important public health issues, and represent 60% of emerging infectious diseases. Most of zoonotic pathogens originate from wildlife, such as the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Influenza Virus or Ebola Virus. Chiroptera have been recognized as an important reservoir of zoonotic viruses, such as the lyssavirus or the coronavirus responsible for the pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003-2004.Southeast Asia is a hotspot for emerging diseases. Bats represent 30% of the biodiversity and are in close contact with human populations, due to the exploitation of the same environment and the use of bats as food in subsistence hunting. So far, there has been a lack of knowledge and understanding concerning the viruses circulating in the bat population in this region, especially in Cambodia and Lao P.D.R. The work presented in this thesis is dedicated to this problematic, with a special focus on the detection and molecular characterization of coronaviruses and astroviruses in bat populations in these two countries. The aim was also to depict environmental aspects which increase the risk of potential transmission from bats to humans.The first part of this work was dedicated to the detection and typing of astroviruses and coronaviruses in bats collected over a three-year period throughout Cambodia and Lao P.D.R. A high diversity of these viruses was found in various insectivorous and frugivorous bats. New bat reservoirs and new potential virus strains were detected, including some related to strains known to be highly pathogenic for humans or livestock species.The second part of this work therefore concentrates on a deeper characterization of the strains of interest, targeting genomic regions involved in cell host entry, and thus in ability to cross species barriers .Several isolation and sequencing methods were implemented in order to characterize the regions of interest, i.e. capsid and spike proteins. Results were limited and did not permit a deeper characterization. Nevertheless, this work highlights the aspects which need to be improved in order to sequence the viruses more effectively.The final part of this thesis examined environmental factors impacting the distribution pattern of bats, as well as the potential risk for virus transmission to humans. Transformation of landscape by humans from natural to cultivated lands, appeared to be important factors to take into account when investigating bat distribution, and the viruses they can harbor. Despite the weakness of the dataset, the methodological approach is worth being considered in further epidemiological studies on bat-associated viruses.
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Audrey Lacroix. La détection et la caractérisation de coronavirus et astrovirus chez les chiroptères au Cambodge et au Laos. Biologie animale. Université Montpellier, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016MONTT141⟩. ⟨tel-01653087⟩

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