Recherche de biomarqueurs sanguins de la plasticité lipidique chez le porc et le poulet

Abstract : Meat production at a lower cost requires robust and efficient animals able to adapt to different rearing conditions. This requires assessing animal’s abilities to store and restore its energy reserves. The objective of the current thesis was to identify potential blood markers of body composition. Two monogastric species were studied, pig and chicken. For each species, animals of two genetic lines (divergent selection on Residual Feed Intake in pigs and abdominal fat proportion in chicken) received two diets contrasted in energy sources (high vegetable oils and fibers vs. rich in starch) but isoproteic and isoenergetic. Plasma parameters and the blood transcriptome were studied in response to those diets.Plasma metabolites and hormones were affected by the diet in pigs whereas those parameters were affected by the diet and the genetic lines in chickens. Metabolome analysis, associated with targeted measurement of metabolites and hormones concentrations, shows that the combination of several blood parameters explained between 37 and 75% of the variability of body fat in pig or chicken. For both species, the blood transcriptome was more affected by the line than by the diet. Pigs and chickens fed a diet rich in lipids and fibers, overexpressed the gene encoding the hepatic form of a mitochondrial enzyme: CPT1A. In summary, this work supports the potential use of blood transcriptome to study variations of phenotypes in a dynamic way throughout the life of the animal and to highlight biomarkers for future selection process.
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Maëva Jegou. Recherche de biomarqueurs sanguins de la plasticité lipidique chez le porc et le poulet. Zootechnie. Agrocampus Ouest, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016NSARB247⟩. ⟨tel-01652131v2⟩

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