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Evaluation de l’adaptation à l’entraînement du footballeur professionnel par la variabilité de la fréquence cardiaque : intérêt de la position debout

Abstract : Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is a simple and noninvasive tool to assess autonomic nervous system(ANS) influences to the heart. ANS is made of twoopposing effect branches. The sympathetic oneactivates the heart while the parasympathetic one slowsit down. Parasympathetic indicators derived from HRVare well studied in the context of endurance sports.They could be determined by means of time or spectralanalysis (Root mean Square of the Successive Difference, RMSSD, and High Frequency, HF, respectively). They provide key information to monitor training adaptation. In the case of soccer, a balance between training charge and recovery is necessary because of the numerous games during a whole season. HRV is supposed to assist coaches in order tooptimize training and thus players’ physical performance. Many European soccer clubs use the indicator recommended for endurance sports (RMSSD). However, soccer is an intermittent sport that involves theoretically more the sympathetic nervous system(reactivity) than the parasympathetic one. Our studies on professional soccer players show that RMSSD is not the most relevant indicator, neither to monitor training during a pre-season nor to predict fitness perception during competition. We demonstrated that HRV spectralanalysis performed while players are standing is more appropriate since this position involved the sympathetic nervous system. However, spectral analysis failed toidentify sympathetic nervous system as the key determinant of soccer training adaptation. In addition, our results challenged the link between RMSSD and the parasympathetic nervous system. In conclusion,spectral analysis of HRV performed in the standing position is a useful tool in the case of intermittent highlevel sports.
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Guillaume Ravé. Evaluation de l’adaptation à l’entraînement du footballeur professionnel par la variabilité de la fréquence cardiaque : intérêt de la position debout. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université d'Angers, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016ANGE0040⟩. ⟨tel-01652114⟩

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