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Conception et élaboration d'échafaudages de nanofibres à dégradation contrôlée pour des applications en médecine régénératrice vasculaire

Abstract : The absence of neo-endothelium on the intimal surface of vascular substitutes is known to be one cause of failure upon implantation of these prostheses in humans. Previous studies have shown that the coating of these substitutes with a nanofiber scaffold, made with an innovative air spinning device, can be used to promote a suitable endothelial cells growth. On one hand, the degradable feature of material as PLA enable the progressive replacement of the scaffold by the extracellular matrix of cells. On the other hand, the success of this replacement between degradable nanofibers and the extracellular matrix requires to be appropriate and controlled. Yet, the PLA nanofiber degradation process, which depends on its stereosequences, is generally too long for this application and could involve cell sensitivity during the degradation. In this context, studies from this thesis aim to understand the fibers formation during spinning, optimizing the scaffold fabrication as well as to promote the making of novel polymer scaffolds, then, design solution to polymeric nanofiber scaffolds for vascular application, evaluate its degradation mechanism and cytotoxicity during degradation process. The work on spinning device optimisation has demonstrated that the concentration had a dominant effect. Thus, viscosity measurements enable to find suitable parameters for polymer spinning. Then, a semi-cristalline poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) and a poly(lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) terpolymer specifically made for vascular application have been synthesized and air-spun. These samples were degraded in aqueous solution and characterized by physical and chemical methods to better understand their degradation mechanisms and seeded with endothelial cells to evaluate their cytotoxicity. The comparison between the two polymers scaffolds have shown surprising degradation behaviors depending on thermal properties of polymers. Moreover, these nanofiber degradation mechanisms have a direct influence on endothelial cells sensitivity with degradation by-products. To conclude, these works of doctorate display a promising solution to improve vascular prostheses and which could be applied to solve several issues in regenerative medicine field.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, November 29, 2017 - 10:46:54 PM
Last modification on : Friday, October 23, 2020 - 5:03:14 PM


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  • HAL Id : tel-01652106, version 1



Gad Sabbatier. Conception et élaboration d'échafaudages de nanofibres à dégradation contrôlée pour des applications en médecine régénératrice vasculaire. Autre. Université de Haute Alsace - Mulhouse; Université Laval (Québec, Canada), 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015MULH5071⟩. ⟨tel-01652106⟩



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