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Maîtrise de l’azote en système irrigué : application au contexte méditerranéen

Abstract : The main goal in modern agriculture is the control of nitrogen fluxes in agricultural soils under the irrigation techniques. This objective requires a lot of research, especially in the field, to escort an optimal strategy of fertigation. For this purpose, an experimental protocol has been applied to follow the soil nitrogen fate for various irrigation and fertilization scenarios, during two intensive field campaigns in maize plots. In the articulation of our work, and to be able to examine the nitrogen dynamics in unsaturated agricultural soils under irrigated systems, we succeeded firstly to determine and clarify the ambiguous relation between the irrigation techniques (flood irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, surface and subsurface drip irrigation) and the different nitrogen transformations (Fixation, Mineralization, Immobilization, Nitrification, Denitrification and Volatilization) in agricultural contexts. This relationship, which is unclear and untreated in other similar studies, has been reviewed by studying the impact of certain factors, such as soil moisture and soil temperature under different irrigation techniques, on microbial soil activity and therefore on the nitrogen transformations (such as mineralization). A significant difference of mineralization was observed in maize plots with no fertilizer application treatment between sprinkler irrigation and subsurface drip irrigation. The experimental data collected have been used to analyze the water and nitrogen fluxes for various initial conditions and fertilisation strategies under sprinkler and subsurface drip irrigation by using the HYDRUS-2D model. Analyzing the sensitivity of nitrogen fluxes parameters using HYDRUS-2D allowed to estimate the nitrogen dynamics under more complex agro-pedoclimatic contexts. In conclusion, the present study allowed to improve the fertilization knowledge under both the sprinkler and subsurface drip irrigation in a Mediterranean environment.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, November 29, 2017 - 10:45:13 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01652101, version 1
  • IRSTEA : PUB00057107

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Mohammad Barakat. Maîtrise de l’azote en système irrigué : application au contexte méditerranéen. Sciences et techniques de l'agriculture. Université de Lyon, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LYSET004⟩. ⟨tel-01652101⟩

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