Processus adaptatifs des végétaux marins face au changement climatique à différentes échelles de temps et d'espace : dynamique de populations, métabolomique, écophysiologie et potentiels de valorisation

Abstract : Three model species with a large distribution along European coasts, along a latitudinal gradient from Norway to Portugal was chosen: Sargassum muticum, Codium fragile and Gracilaria vermiculophylla. The aims of this PhD thesis were to study the phenology, ecophysiology and the metabolom of these non-native marine macrophytes and their ability to cope with a variation of environmental factors 1) at a population scale, 2) along the latitudinal gradient (in relation with the global climatic change) and to propose 3) bio-inspired molecules for industrial purposes. The latitudinal gradient corresponding to a thermic gradient, allows to imitate the global warming as climatic change ¡mpacts are most of the time only visible at decennial scale.Monitorings of ecology, metabolome and potential impacts of these macroalgae, at a population scale, allowed to study the development and life cycle of these models. In particular, G. vermiculophylla exhibited a specific phenology (with a majority of small vegetative fragments, <3cm) in the Bay of Brest and a highly tolerance to burial until 12 cm depth in the sediment by acclimatizing its metabolome together with the ability to maintain a dormancy physiology. This engineer species modifies deeply muddy shores of this Bay. Latitunal gradients's monitoring highlighted the phenological plasticity and a contrasted invasive potential of C.fragile between latitudes. During low spring tides, species exhibited an acclimation of their photophysiology between latitudes with photoinhibition process related to induce environmental stress. Furthermore, this work showed the multifunctional properties of polyphenols enriched extracts with antioxidant, photoprotective or osteogenic activities, highlighting the emergence of original bio-inspired pathways for cosmetic or biomaterial applications.
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Gwladys Surget. Processus adaptatifs des végétaux marins face au changement climatique à différentes échelles de temps et d'espace : dynamique de populations, métabolomique, écophysiologie et potentiels de valorisation. Autre [q-bio.OT]. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BRES0056⟩. ⟨tel-01651347⟩

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