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Study of photonic crystals on thin film lithium niobate for sensing applications - design, fabrication and characterization

Abstract : Light is incredibly versatile for measuring all kinds of physical quantities :temperature, electric field (E-field), displacement and strain etc. Photonic sensors are promising candidates for the new generation of sensors developments due to their virtues of high sensitivity, large dynamic range and compact size etc. Integrated and on-fiber end photonic sensors on thin film lithium niobate (TFLN) exploring the electro-optic (EO) and pyro-electric effects are studied in this thesis in order to design E-field sensors and temperature sensors (T-sensors). These studies aim to develop sensors with high sensitivity and compact size. To achieve that aim, sensors that are made of photonic crystals (PhC) cavities are studied by sensing the measurand through the resonance wavelength interrogation method. In integrated sensor studies, intensive numerical calculations by PWE method, mode solving technique and FDTD methods are carried out for the design of high light confinement waveguiding structures on TFLN and suitable PhC configurations. Four types of waveguide (WG) structures (ridge WG, strip loaded WG, slot WG and double slot WG) are studied with a large range of geometrical parameters. Among them, slot WG yields the highest confinement factor while strip loaded WG is an easier option for realizations. Bragg grating is designed in slot WG with an ultra compact size (about 0.5µm×0.7µm ×6µm) and is employed to design PhC cavity. A moderate resonance Q of about 300 in F-P like cavity where the mirrors are made of PhC is achieved with ER of about 70% of the transmission. Theoretical minimum E-field sensitivity of this slot Bragg grating structure can be as low as 200 µV/m. On the other hand, Si3N4 strip loaded WG is designed with 2D PhC structure and a low resonance Q of about 100 is achieved. Fabrications of nano-metrical WG such as ridge WG Si3N4 strip loaded are demonstrated. However, the realization of nanometric components on LN presents a big challenge.In the on-fiber end sensor studies, guided resonance, oftentimes referred to as Fano resonance due to its asymmetric lineshape, is studied with different PhC lattice types. A Suzuki phase lattice (SPL) PhC presenting a Fano resonance at the vicinity of 1500 nm has been studied and demonstrated as temperature sensor with sensitivity of 0.77 nm/oC with a size of only 25 µm × 24 µm. In addition, guided resonances on rectangular lattice PhC have been systematically studied through band diagram calculations, 2D-FDTD and 3D- FDTD simulations.
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Wentao Qiu. Study of photonic crystals on thin film lithium niobate for sensing applications - design, fabrication and characterization. Optics [physics.optics]. Université de Franche-Comté, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016BESA2060⟩. ⟨tel-01651196⟩

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