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Caractérisation d'un complexe chromatinien impliqué dans l'inactivation post-transcriptionnelle des ARNs

Abstract : Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is a defense mechanism that targets invading nucleic acids from endogenous (transposons) or exogenous (pathogens, transgenes) origins. Mutations in JMJ14 and NAC52 have been retrieved from a genetic screen aiming to identify PTGS deficient mutants. JMJ14 encodes an histone demethylase targeting the bi- or tri-methylated lysine 4 of histone H3, while NAC52 encodes a transcription factor. Both act in a complex that regulates the transcription of hundreds endogenous genes. However, the function of this chromatin complex in transgene expression and in PTGS is not known. JMJ14 interacts with NAC52 but also with a guanine exchange factor of the RCC1 family. Mutations in any member of the RCC1-JMJ14-NAC52 complex reduce transgene transcription. JMJ14 binds to the transgene promoter independently of NAC52, whereas NAC52 requires JMJ14 to bind on the transcribed region. However, JMJ14 and NAC52 do not seem to be required for transcription itself. Indeed, a wild-type level of transcription is restored in the jmj14 drm2 double mutant, suggesting that the complex RCC1-JMJ14-NAC52 prevents de novo DNA methylation of the promoter by DRM2. The effects of jmj14 and nac52 mutations on transgene transcription cannot explain their specific effect on some forms of PTGS. Indeed, jmj14 and nac52 do not affect constitutively-induced PTGS, but prevent the systemic spreading of locally-induced PTGS. Mutations in SCPL45, encoding a Serine-Carboxy Peptidase-Like that interacts with NAC52, but not JMJ14, have the same effect. In contrast, rcc1 does not affect the systemic PTGS, suggesting that a JMJ14-NAC52-SCPL45 complex is involved in the control of systemic PTGS. This complex could act directly on transgene chromatin to trigger PTGS in response to the PTGS signal, or indirectly by controlling the expression of an endogenous gene encoding a protein regulating systemic PTGS. To better understand the function of JMJ14 in systemic PTGS, a genetic screen aiming to identify suppressors of jmj14 have been performed. Sixteen mutants corresponding to seven genes encoding proteins related to chromatin and having an antagonist function to JMJ14, have been characterized. Mutations in theses seven genes could suppress jmj14 by increasing transgene transcription and consequently the quantity of the PTGS systemic signal. A seventeenth mutant could have a qualitative effect on the PTGS systemic signal or could affect the perception of this signal in recipient cells. The corresponding gene remains to identify.
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Submitted on : Monday, November 27, 2017 - 8:45:52 PM
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Nicolas Butel. Caractérisation d'un complexe chromatinien impliqué dans l'inactivation post-transcriptionnelle des ARNs. Biologie moléculaire. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLS302⟩. ⟨tel-01649873⟩

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