Etude des homologies phénotypiques et fonctionnelles des lymphocytes B en latence III de l'EBV avec les cellules B régulatrices, implication de l'axe PD-1/PD-L1

Abstract : The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the first transforming virus discovered in humans. It infects more than 90% of the global adult population, persisting in an episomal form in the memory B-cell compartment throughout the life of the host. During primo-infection and during phases of viral reactivation, immortalized B-cells are in latency III, also called the proliferation program, in which the full range of latency proteins are expressed. In immunocompetent subjects, a balance between virus and host is established, and most infected B-cells are eliminated by the host’s immune system, mainly by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Deficit of the immune system may lead to lymphomagenesis, such as post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs), non-Hodgkin’s (NHL) or Hodgkin’s lymphomas (HL). Previous studies in the lab revealed that the immuno-inhibitor PD-L1/B7-H1/CD274 was overexpressed on the surface of EBV latency III B-cells. Interleukin-10 (IL-10was also secreted by these cells. These features are shared with regulatory B-cells (Bregs). Our objective was to examine the immunomodulatory features of EBV latency III B-cells, in the frame of Bregproperties. We found that EBV latency III B-cells possessed the antigenic determinants common to immature Bregs (CD24High CD38High PD-L1High), associated with overexpression of Breg immunosuppressive cytokines (IL-10, TGF-β1 and IL-35). EBV latency III B-cells led to death of autologous CD4 T-cells, as well as inhibition of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocyte proliferation, favoring regulatory T-cell (Treg) expansion. We found that this expansion was mediated by the PD-1/PD-L1 axis. This study highlights a new mechanism of EBV for t diversion of the host immune system thereby increasing its oncogenic properties.
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Héloïse Auclair. Etude des homologies phénotypiques et fonctionnelles des lymphocytes B en latence III de l'EBV avec les cellules B régulatrices, implication de l'axe PD-1/PD-L1. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Limoges, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LIMO0032⟩. ⟨tel-01649542⟩

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