Analyse et modélisation de l'impact de la libéralisation sur les performances ferroviaires

Abstract : After having accompanied the industrial revolution in the 19th century, rail transport difficultly adapt to the challenges launched by the road since a hundred years. Nowadays, European rail transport suffers from competition from the road, both for travellers and cargo. Since the beginning of the 20th century, the role of the railways in the goods and passengers transport has been declining. In the countries of the European Union, it now does ensure only 6% of passenger transport and 16% of goods transport. The European rail transport renewal is also marked by the development of the high-speed train. Total passenger "high speed" traffic is 15 billion passenger-km in 1990 against 111 billion passenger-km in 2014, that is an overall growth of 740%. The share of total passenger "high speed" traffic has increased from 4% in 1990 to 25% in 2014.The obvious observation is that, since the beginning of the 1990s, the railways have lost market share and therefore required growing subsidies.The need to improve this situation led to imagine a wide range of possibilities for action by national and European public authorities. Since the beginning of the 1990s, the European Commission is engaged in a vast reform aiming at the construction of an integrated railway area.In a context of European rail slump, we want to appreciate the performance of the railways in order to identify the main factors that will avoid the decline. We start from the idea that railways must be efficient in terms of production and commercialization of services.Each of the four chapters of this thesis uses various methods to contribute to the growing field of the rail transport.The first chapter uses the partial measures of productivity indicators to evaluate the performance of a panel of four European railway companies, the DB in Germany, SNCF in France, the RENFE in Spain and FS in Italy, observed between 1990 and 2012. Our aim here is twofold, to take stock of the current situation and reveal the path of major European rail companies on a period starting a little before the railway reforms initiated by the European Commission. These indicators help us to evaluate four areas of performance: productive performance, business performance, economic performance and financial performance. It is for us the opportunity to evaluate the efficiency of the directive 91-440 of 29 July 1991 relating to the development of Community railways, directive that recommends to promote the independence of management of railway companies, as well as their financial clean-up, especially their deleveraging. The second chapter shows the theoretical framework of technical efficiency, by a review of the theoretical foundations and by presenting the methodology of the borders. To complete this analysis, we propose a review of non-exhaustive literature of empirical studies on the evaluation of the performance of the railways. The third chapter suggests empirical contributions to the measurement of the performance of the railways. It is for us the opportunity to evaluate, compare and explain the differences in performance of some countries of the European union. Four performance indicators have caught our attention: productive efficiency, trade efficiency, technical efficiency and the variation of the total factor productivity. To this end, we simultaneously estimated three parametric and stochastic borders, namely, a production-oriented input border, a border of consumption and a border of technical efficiency-oriented input......
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Emmanuel Bougna Tchofo. Analyse et modélisation de l'impact de la libéralisation sur les performances ferroviaires. Economies et finances. Université de Lyon, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LYSE2032⟩. ⟨tel-01643674⟩

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