Les troubles du comportement : une maladie de la culture qui fait symptôme dans le lien social et interroge l’École

Abstract : The "behaviour disorders" topic is a triple perspective subject, with social, legal and clinical approaches, that necessarily interrogate the concepts of norms (social, legal, of health) and normality. In order to limit usual considerations on the biological determinisms in the etiology of behaviour disorders, this study will focus on the main socioeconomic and cultural causes, in order to establish that the correlation with the disadvantaged socioeconomic environment is not a matter of fate. This study postulates indeed there is a strong correlation between behaviour disorders and unprivileged background, which can lead to a failure of the family environment, with educational and emotional deficiencies, sources of an "acquired vulnerability" favouring the acting out which, between "deviance", "delinquency" and "pathology", may be considered as "conduct and behaviour disorders" (TCC).While the multiplicity of risk factors does not allow causal simplifications, a clinical approach to the social tends nevertheless to establish that these "disorders" also result from the state of our civilization, and more particularly from the "dissolution of the social link", cause and effect of the symptoms. A narcissistic vulnerability which is not unrelated to a societal vulnerability inherent to the economic model of free market based on the denial of otherness, that is an "impulsive capitalism" (Stiegler) which maintains the cult of insatiability and unlimited enjoyment, engendering the isolation of the individual and the disintegration of society. Where from the interest of an educational shape convenient to the emancipation of a subject capable "to do work of himself," (Pestalozzi) but also capable to join a collective history that precedes him.The approach joins in a modern dialectic affiliated to the psychoanalysis, as a method of access to the exercise of the "complex thought" (Morin), towards an analytical social psychology in the lineage of the School of Frankfurt. It is thus a question, as Jacques Pain says following François Tosquelles, "to walk on two legs" (Marx and Freud), up to the point of dead end of this "Real impossible" (Lacan), which opens the way to indecision because he does not allow to formalize simultaneously these two different realities: material and psychic.
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David Lopez. Les troubles du comportement : une maladie de la culture qui fait symptôme dans le lien social et interroge l’École. Education. Université Paul Valéry - Montpellier III, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017MON30012⟩. ⟨tel-01635250⟩

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