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Observations de vestiges de supernovæ en coquille avec le Fermi Large Area Telescope

Abstract : After more than a century of cosmic-ray studies, questions about their origin remain unanswered. In our galaxy, supernova remnants are excellent candidates to be the sources of cosmic rays and it is now certain that these shock waves created by the explosion of dying stars accelerate electrons up to TeV energies. However, undeniable proof is still missing to confirm that protons, which represent ~90% of the cosmic radiation, are also accelerated. Such proof can be searched for between 100 MeV and 10 GeV, where the spectral shape of the gamma-ray emission changes according to the nature of the particles that are accelerated.This energy range is covered by the Fermi spacecraft which observes the high energy sky with the Large Area telescope (LAT), an instrument detecting gamma-rays from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. With the latest version of the data, released in 2015 (Pass 8), the effective area has been greatly improved, especially at high energy. The goal of this thesis was to take advantage of the improved performance of the LAT to study the radiation coming from young shell-type supernova remnants and to evaluate their ability to accelerate particles to high energy. Four such remnants were studied in detail: RCW 86, HESS J1731-347, SN 1006 and RX J1713.7-3946.Spatial and spectral analyses of these sources yielded important results: HESS J1731-347 and SN 1006 were identified for the first time in the GeV range, we detected a shell-like morphology for RCW 86 which was previously seen as a point source, and RX J1713.7-3946 revealed an unexpected spectral shape. Broadband modeling of the non-thermal emission of these remnants, using in particular TeV data obtained with H.E.S.S., showed that their gamma-ray emission is dominated by the inverse Compton scattering of electrons on ambient photon fields. However, we also found spectral modifications in some parts of SN 1006 and RX J1713.7-3946 where the shock is interacting with dense regions that could trace the acceleration of protons.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, December 12, 2017 - 1:43:24 AM
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Benjamin Condon. Observations de vestiges de supernovæ en coquille avec le Fermi Large Area Telescope. Astrophysique [astro-ph]. Université de Bordeaux, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BORD0686⟩. ⟨tel-01634491v2⟩

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