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Localisation de véhicule par satellites couplée à la navigation à l'estime et aux données cartographiques

Abstract : Localization is one of the key functional component of ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems), with wireless telecommunications, computation... Satellite positioning technologies (GNSS) are the main theme of the works presented here. Today, GNSS receivers are in particular implemented for the vehicles of tomorrow, in the context of ITS, but older works, related to the research in site robotics, are also reported in the HDR manuscript. The thesis (Bétaille, 2004) carried out in partnership between University College London, Leica Geosystems and LCPC brings a set of contributions noticeably in the context of robotics. Thus, the first part of the manuscript (Chapters 2 and 3) outlines satellite positioning and the different modes of use of GPS. One of the most precise modes (the one using the phase measurements of the signal) is used in field robotics, with however the challenging issue related to the local electromagnetic reflections of the signal (multipath). An experimental methodology applied to the study of the perturbations of the phase measurement by multipath has been made. These disturbances have been studied, giving rise to the proposal of a real-time phase error correction algorithm. This correction is particularly effective when multipath is derived from nearby reflectors (with a gain of 20% compared to a specialized PMMW correlator as implemented by Leica in its receivers for surveying and geodesy). [Bétaille et al., 2006], published in the IEEE AES Transactions, is the main publication for this work. In the last ten years, scientific contributions have been made in the field of localization for ITS, in the IFSTTAR Geolocalization Laboratory (Chapters 4 and 5 of the manuscript). The main originality of the work carried out - in loose and tight coupling, i.e. both in terms of the solutions output by GNSS receivers, and in terms of their raw distance and Doppler measurements - is the use of geomatics data as constraints in the positioning problem. Thus, Ahmed Selloum's thesis (Selloum, 2010) and the European project CVIS POMA (Cooperative Vehicle Infrastructure System - POsitioning and MApping) have demonstrated the interest of jointly solving the problems of localization and map-matching, with the production of an associated integrity indicator. Notable references, besides the thesis itself, are: [Toledo et al., 2010] and [Bétaille and Toledo, 2010], published in the IEEE ITS Transactions. A new lane-level digital map, depicting every road lane, was proposed then. In the most recent research, the 3D urban model available at the French geographical institute IGN have also been integrated into the calculation of the navigation solution, with correction of raw distance measurements to satellites identified as non-line-of-sight. This correction has shown its effectiveness, with a gain of up to 70% compared to a standard solver in Paris for example. [Peyraud et al., 2013], published in Sensors, and [Bétaille et al., 2013a], published in IEEE ITS Magazine, are the main publications referring to this work. An article resuming this work in a peer-reviewed international journal was submitted in early 2014 ([Bétaille et al., 2014a], Journal of Navigation, Cambridge).
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David Betaille. Localisation de véhicule par satellites couplée à la navigation à l'estime et aux données cartographiques. Automatique / Robotique. Ecole des Sciences et Technologies de l'Information et de Mathématiques de l'Université de Nantes, Angers, Le Mans, 2014. ⟨tel-01634339⟩

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