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Etude de la signature EM bistatique d'une surface maritime hétérogène avec prise en compte des phénomènes hydrodynamiques

Abstract : The work done in this thesis fits generally under the observation and maritime surveillance. To improve the detection and automatic identification of targets embedded in a noisy environment targets, we opted for the fusion of different knowledge and information regarding a remotely observed scene by microwave sensors. Indeed, several physical phenomena co-exist and interfere with the propagation of electromagnetic waves over a heterogeneous sea surface (the refraction due to the index gradients, the roughness of the sea surface, nonlinear hydrodynamic effects like waves breaking, the presence of objects, pollutants, ship wake, coastal areas,..). In this context, the work presented in this thesis focuses on the study of electromagnetic signature (diffusion coefficients) of a heterogeneous sea surface with consideration of hydrodynamic phenomena (linear: capillary and gravity waves, nonlinear: breaking waves). The electromagnetic signature is performed in bistatic configuration (monostatic and forward propagating) and in X-band. The complete study of this problem is difficult.Indeed, the breaking wave is a dissipative process of energy that corresponds to the last stage of the life of a wave and therefore has most often held in the shore. This nonlinear phenomenon produces a sea peak which is a rapid increase of the diffusion coefficients and can exceed l0 dB in a 100 ms period. This peak can lead to clutter, which can be identified as virtual targets, and then they can disrupt the detection radar system (false alarms). Therefore, to improve the detection process and reduce the false alarm rate, it is important to distinguish between targets and sea peaks generated by breaking waves. This represents one of the motivations and also the interest to study the electromagnetic signature of breaking waves in different observation configurations so that we can easily detect and identify the sea peaks. To solve this problem, we proposed a methodology based on a hybrid electromagnetic model which is on a combination of asymptotic methods (SPMI used in this work) to simulate the radar response of linear waves (capillary and gravity waves described via the Elfouhaily sea spectrum) and an exact methods, the method of moment (the FB "Forward-Backward" method is used in this work), to calculate the electromagnetic response of nonlinear waves (profiles are produced by the LONGTANK code). To complement the theoretical study and simulations, we carried out an evaluation and validation phase by measuring the radar signature of breaking wave profiles in the ENSTA Bretagne anechoic chamber.
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Slahedine Ben Khadra. Etude de la signature EM bistatique d'une surface maritime hétérogène avec prise en compte des phénomènes hydrodynamiques. Electromagnétisme. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012BRES0089⟩. ⟨tel-01632556⟩

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