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Construction Site Layout Optimization, Considering Risk of Natural or Technological Hazard Utilizing GIS

Abstract : Construction sites contain several supporting facilities that are required to complete construction activities. These facilities are susceptible to damage due to the occurrence of natural or technological hazards such as fire, explosion, blast wave, and so on. These may cause adverse consequences for the whole construction process, which in turn lead to fatal accidents that have a major impact on worker and employee productivity, project completion time, project quality and project budget. Therefore, project planners must adopt and develop innovative approaches able to face the occurrence of potential hazards, minimize their consequences, and facilitate the evacuation of the site in case of their occurrence. One of these approaches is optimizing construction site layout. In general, generating construction site layout able minimizing risk resulting from natural or technological hazards is still a scientific challenge.In the present research, two proposed model (deterministic and probabilistic) are developed to minimize the risks within a construction site. The common methodology adopted to develop these two models consists of:•Modeling construction site components, for instance; electric generator, offices and material storages, in a 2D layout, to act as either hazardous source or potential target or both at the same time.•Modeling hazard: it shows the hazard interaction among site components and the attenuation of hazard.•Modeling vulnerability: it represents the potential weakness of whole targets to the hazard generated from each source.•Defining the utility function: it aims to afford an optimized site layout with minimum total risk in the construction site. The differential evolution algorithm is adopted to run optimization process.Particularly, in the deterministic model, we use space syntax principle in order to realize the impact of space configurations in evaluating the risk in the construction site. Therefore, as the evacuation process is considered in estimating the risk, the actual risk is amplified by utilizing penalty factor called mean depth. Furthermore, Dijkstra’s algorithm is run on deterministic model to find the safest paths (least risk paths) for evacuating sites from any position on the construction site towards the safe places in order to diminish losses and fatalities. On the other hand, the framework utilized to develop a probabilistic model assumed that the risk is combined of the individual failure of each facility within a construction site. Moreover, the numerical simulation is performed to find the probabilistic distribution of failure for the whole site.Geographic information system (GIS) capabilities were exploited, in this research, to present data in maps format, generate the spatial risk map in the construction site, and implement the Dijkstra’s algorithm and least-cost path analysis.For illustration purposes, the proposed models are employed in a case study consisting of several facilities. In the deterministic model, all of these facilities act as hazardous sources and potential targets, at the same time, while, in a probabilistic model, only three of these facilities act as fire hazardous sources, whereas, all of them are potential targets. The results revealed that the proposed models are efficient due to their capability of generating site layout with the safer work environment. In addition, the model is capable of highlighting the riskiest areas within a construction site. Moreover, the proposed models are able to generate paths through least-risk zones, which will minimize the serious injuries and victims in cases of emergencies
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Mohammed Abune'Meh. Construction Site Layout Optimization, Considering Risk of Natural or Technological Hazard Utilizing GIS. Other. Université Paris-Est, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017PESC1012⟩. ⟨tel-01631400⟩

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