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Rôle de l'inflammasome NLRP3 dans l'athérosclérose et le diabète de type 2

Abstract : The NLRP3 inflammasome activity is abnormally elevated in many human inflammatory diseases, including cardiovascular and metabolic diseases such as atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) respectively. Therefore, there is considerable interest in the identification of effective therapeutics that selectively inhibit the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway. In this study, we have identified Arglabin as a potential small molecule inhibitor that targets the NLRP3 inflammasome activity in cell culture and in an animal model, the ApoE2.Ki mice fed a high-fat Western-type diet (HFD). Arglabin, a plant sesquiterpene lactone, has been used extensively as an herbal remedy that proved effective in treating cancer of the liver, lungs and breast at early stages. Arglabin inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, IL-1β and IL-18 production in lipopolysaccharide and cholesterol crystal-activated cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages. In addition, Arglabin activated autophagy as evidenced by the increase in LC3-II protein. Intraperitoneal injection of Arglabin (2.5 ng/g body weight twice daily for 13 weeks) into female ApoE2.Ki mice fed a HFD resulted in a decreased IL-1β plasma level and reduced plasma levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides. Treatment of ApoE2.Ki mice fed a HFD with Arglabin significantly reduced the plasma concentration of anti-oxLDL antibodies. Moreover, Arglabin oriented the proinflammatory M1 macrophages into the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype in spleen and arterial lesions. Consequently, a marked reduction in atherosclerotic lesions was observed in the median areas in the sinus and whole aorta. In comparison to vehicle-treated mice, Arglabin reduced plasma levels of glucose and insulin. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the presence of active caspase 3 in Langerhans islets of ApoE2.Ki mice fed a HFD that was significantly inhibited by Arglabin treatment. Moreover, Arglabin reduced susceptibility to apoptosis in cultured INS-1 cells by increasing concentration-dependently Bcl-2 levels, which led to concomitantly decreased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. In cultured INS-1 cells, Arglabin increased the expression of the autophagic markers Becline 1 and LC3-II in a concentration-dependent manner. Consequently, our results indicate survival-promoting properties of the Arglabin molecule in pancreatic β-cells.In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that Arglabin may represent a promising new drug to treat atherosclerosis and T2DM.
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  • HAL Id : tel-01630298, version 1

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Amna Abderrazak. Rôle de l'inflammasome NLRP3 dans l'athérosclérose et le diabète de type 2. Physiologie [q-bio.TO]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI; Institut supérieur de biotechnologie (Monastir, Tunisie), 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PA066735⟩. ⟨tel-01630298⟩

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