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Le dialogue éducatif des Lumières : innovations, permanences et fantasmes (1754-1804)

Abstract : In the second half of the eighteenth century, the dialogic form has been used as a vehicle for a new educational methodology, which claims a renewed conception of the child as a unique being to which one must adapt one’s speech and teaching, in order to show, through “practice”, that which is a successful education. Taking into account the nature, the age and the character of the child, these pedagogical directions aim to create the models for an ideal education, both general and reasoned.Playing on the seduction of a literary form, at the same time “total”, “new” and “natural”, many authors resort to multi-faceted dialogue to present in detail some educational exchanges: indeed, dialogue permits the integration of new facts into children’s education, by the living reminder of the educational relationship, an enriched temporality and the introduction of elements of reflectivity on the presented practice. The first targets of these projects of educational reform are young girls, to which specific fictions are dedicated proposing an often ambitious domestic education.Situated at the intersection of two crucial questions, that of the educational reform of the Enlightenment, and that of the creation of a literary domain – children’s literature, still in gestation –, the educational dialogue of this period is best understood if one takes into account the rhetorical and editorial strategies of its promotors. These allow one to better perceive and measure the educational ambitions and oppositions of this period. The mimetic and practical illusion on which the educational dialogue is based gives access to that which makes the educational doxa of the Enlightenment, caught between ponderousness, ambitions to originality and effective innovation.
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Jeanne Chiron. Le dialogue éducatif des Lumières : innovations, permanences et fantasmes (1754-1804). Education. Université Paris-Est, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PESC0015⟩. ⟨tel-01629825⟩

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