Approche intégrative de la réponse d'un organisme marin face au changement climatique : la coquille Saint-Jacques Pecten maximus et les stress thermique et hypoxique

Abstract : Coasts are among the most vulnerable ecosystems to the ongoing global changes, which result in increased water temperatures and frequencies of hypoxic episodes. The great scallop, Pecten maximus, is a subtidal species living at depths of 2-210 m. In spite of its commercial and major ecological values, only few studies at the molecular level were performed on this species. This thesis aimed at characterizing the molecular mechanisms implied in acclimation of this species to thermal and hypoxia stresses. We first characterized the changes of expression of the genes / proteins in response to a long-term thermal stress (56 days), by using both a transcriptomic- (RNAseq) and a proteomic- (2-DE based) approaches, in the mantle tissue of scallops. This allowed us to identify key regulatory pathways (eg., AP-1), the major functions (eg., cytoskeleton) and processes (eg., apoptosis) involved in the response, but also to observe the main orientations of metabolism (eg., degradation of lipid reserves). The response of organisms to hypoxia depends on how they cope with low oxygen availability. Therefore, we first carried out a comparative approach with an intertidal species, the mussel (Mytilus spp.) to characterize the physiological response of P. maximus to hypoxia. Of note, we could determine its oxyregulatory parameters, particularly its critical point in 02 (Pc02). Then, coupling the effects of temperature and of hypoxia, we developed a proteomic approach that allowed us to identify several proteins (CK2, GLN, etc.) potentially involved in the response at the molecular level. Finally, in an effort to better understand the particular physiology of these mollusks in their natural environment, we compared the proteomic signatures of two populations of P. maximus living in highly contrasted ecosystems, ie in the northern limit- (Norway) and the center- (Brest) of the biogeographical distribution of this species. The results suggest major differences between the two populations, especially at the cytoskeleton level. In all, this work opens new avenues for understanding the molecular mechanisms governing the adaptation of mollusks to heat and hypoxia, two stresses that will most probably greatly influence the lifestyle of marine organisms and populations in future years.
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Sébastien Artigaud. Approche intégrative de la réponse d'un organisme marin face au changement climatique : la coquille Saint-Jacques Pecten maximus et les stress thermique et hypoxique. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013BRES0078⟩. ⟨tel-01629189⟩

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