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Nouvelle approche de décryptage de la diversité bactérienne environnementale par capture magnétique de populations spécifiques de bactéries au sein de microbiotes complexes

Abstract : Bacteria, the most abundant organisms on our planet, have a fundamental role in ecosystem functioning. Despite their importance, the characterization of bacterial communities is today still incomplete. This is due to the impossibility of completely decomposing taxonomically and functionally the microbial communities of these ecosystems and as a consequence to apprehend the whole bacterial diversity, either by cultural approaches (with only 1% of culturable bacteria) or by metagenomic, a limited approaches cause by biases in extraction, sequencing and analysis. The work undertaken in this thesis aims to develop a new exploratory pathway through the fractionation of microbiota in order to study separately genomes of different populations or groups of populations. Their sum should enable reconstitution of complete metagenome. This objective requires the development of a tool for the specific selection of bacteria (on taxonomic or functional criteria) and their isolation from the rest of the non-target microorganisms. The thesis work focused on the development of a magnetic labeling approach for bacteria based on molecular hybridization (in situ hybridization) complete by development of a microfluidic cell-sorting tool. Two methods have been developed, MISH and HCR, targeting the 23S rRNA gene, each based on the formation, during the hybridization process, of a secondary random structure (MISH) or organized structure (HCR) enabling binding to magnetic nanoparticles. Results obtained illustrate the potential of the two approaches initially for the specific labeling of target bacteria (E.coli and Pseudomonas putida) under laboratory conditions and then in soil samples. The microfluidic sorting was also optimized by the development of a novel magnetic cell-sorting device allowing the separation of the labeled cells under continuous flow using the injection of a magnetic composite polymer to integrate a series of magnetic parallel strips at the bottom of the microchannel. The proper functioning of the sorting device has been demonstrated, its simple production making it a tool of choice for a routine application in laboratories of microbial ecology. Despite promising results all this new approach for studying environmental bacterial diversity is still requiring many optimization steps.
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David Royet. Nouvelle approche de décryptage de la diversité bactérienne environnementale par capture magnétique de populations spécifiques de bactéries au sein de microbiotes complexes. Autre. Université de Lyon, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LYSEC013⟩. ⟨tel-01625197⟩

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