.. Horizontal-scale, 20 Mesoscale climate, ., p.20

.. Urban-design, 22 1.5.1. The urban morphology design with respect to climate zones The urban materials with respect to climate zones, p.24

.. Factors-affecting-urban-microclimate, 24 1.6.1. Air temperature or ambient temperature, Air temperature vs relative humidity, p.32

.. Solar-radiation, 36 The components of electromagnetic spectrum 39 Factors influencing the amount of global radiation on surfaces:5. The building's solar gain via solar radiation, p.45

U. Definition, 63 2.2.1. Urban heat island types: The subsurface urban heat island (SubUHI), p.69

U. Factors, 71 The heat storage (?QS) and the net heat advection (?QA), p.78

C. The, 79 2.3.1. Thermal comfort factors 79 2.3.2. Envelope materials and thermal comfort of building Building bioclimatic charts and thermal comfort, Thermal comfort indicators, p.82

M. Urban-typology-components, 105 Foundation -Substructure of construction, p.116

.. Méthode-d-'affichage-des-résultats, 373 6.2. Les flux solaires incidents, p.375

M. Abd-el-mooty, R. Kansoh, and A. Abdulhadi, Challenges of Water Resources in Iraq, Journal of Waste Water Treatment & Analysis, vol.07, issue.04, pp.1-8, 2016.
DOI : 10.4172/2157-7587.1000260

H. Abed, Effect of Building Form on the Thermal Performance of Residential Complexes in the Mediterranean Climate of the Gaza Strip, 2012.

S. Abubakar, I. Tekwa, and A. Atiku, Challenges of Climate Change on Agricultural Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2012.

B. Ackerman, Climatology of Chicago Area Urban-Rural Differences in Humidity, Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, vol.26, issue.3, pp.427-457, 1987.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0450(1987)026<0427:COCAUR>2.0.CO;2

S. Ahmad, M. Azfanizam, . Choo-ang, . Kok-weng, A. N. Ng et al., Reducing Home Energy Usage Based on TRIZ Concept, Advances in Environmental Biology, pp.6-12, 2015.

J. M. Akridge, High Albedo Roof Coatings-Impact on Energy Consumption, ASHRAE Transactions, vol.104, p.957, 1998.

M. Al-bassam, Material Selection Techniques by Using Computer, Engineering & Technology Journal, vol.27, pp.624-664, 2009.

J. Alcamo, M. Flörke, and M. Märker, Future long-term changes in global water resources driven by socio-economic and climatic changes, Hydrological Sciences Journal, vol.49, issue.2, pp.247-75, 2007.
DOI : 10.1126/science.289.5477.284

N. L. Alchapar, N. Erica, A. Correa, and . Cantón, Classification of building materials used in the urban envelopes according to their capacity for mitigation of the urban heat island in semiarid zones, Energy and Buildings, vol.69, pp.22-32, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.enbuild.2013.10.012

A. Allen, N. D. Silva, and E. Corubolo, Environmental Problems and Opportunities of the Peri-Urban Interface and Their Impact upon the Poor, 1999.

K. Al-sallal, Low Energy Low Carbon Architecture: Recent Advances & Future Directions, 2016.
DOI : 10.1201/b19882

S. Al-ta-'ee, Optimal Location of Solid Waste in the City of Mosul, Adab AL Rafidayn, issue.60, pp.552-70, 2011.

. Altena, E. Bas, T. Boufidou, M. Commandeur, S. Koudijs et al., GM2100 Synthesis Project, 2010.

K. J. Anusavice, Phillips' Science of Dental Materials, 2003.

A. Aran, Manufacturing Properties of Engineering Materials, Istanbul: ITU Department of Mechanical Engineering, 2007.

A. Handbook, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, vol.111, 2001.

N. Asimakopoulos, Energy and Climate in the Urban Built Environment, 2001.

K. Athamena, Modélisation et Simulation Des Microclimats Urbains: Étude de L'impact de La Morphologie Urbaine Sur Le Confort Dans Les Espaces Extérieurs. Cas Des Éco-Quartiers, 2012.

K. Ayinla and S. Odetoye, Climatic Pattern and Design for Indoor Comfort in Ogbomoso, Nigeria, Journal of Environment and Earth Science, vol.5, pp.30-37, 2015.

N. Badea, Design for Micro-Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Systems: Stirling Engines and Renewable Power Systems, 2014.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4471-6254-4

C. Balaji, M. Mani, V. Venkatarama, and . Reddy, Thermal Performance of the Building Walls, Building Simulation Application 2013, 1st IBPSA Italy Conference, pp.151-60, 2013.

N. K. Bansal, S. N. Garg, and S. Kothari, Effect of exterior surface colour on the thermal performance of buildings, Building and Environment, vol.27, issue.1, pp.31-37, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/0360-1323(92)90005-A

B. Earth, The Greenhouse Effect Saves Earth from an Icy Fate, 2017.

R. Beam, J. Laiken, and . Barnett, Introduction T Ofederal Income Taxation in Canada, 2007.

B. Belhadj, M. Bederina, Z. Makhloufi, A. Goullieux, and M. Quéneudec, Study of the thermal performances of an exterior wall of barley straw sand concrete in an arid environment, Energy and Buildings, vol.87, pp.166-75, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.11.034

A. Berlin-environmental, Near Ground Wind Speeds Senate Department for Urban Development and Environment, 2017.

J. N. Bhakta, Handbook of Research on Inventive Bioremediation Techniques Advances in Environmental Engineering and Green Technologies, 2017.

N. Bhatia, Life Cycle Assessment as a Tool for Material Selection -A Comparison of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete and VSBK Brick Wall Assembly, Proceedings of the 30th INTERNATIONAL PLEA CONFERENCE, 2014.

S. P. Bhatnagar, Power of Science & Tec

S. Bin, Urban Environmental Design Unitec Institute of technology. Retrieved from https, 2011.

B. Blocken, H. Hens, and J. Carmeliet, Methods for the Quantification of Driving Rain on Buildings, ASHRAE Transactions, vol.108, p.338, 2002.

N. Board, Select & Start Your Own Industry (4th Revised Edition), 2012.

G. Bonan, Ecological Climatology: Concepts and Applications, 2015.

R. Bothale and . Vinod, Study on ENSO Modulated Seasonal Variations in Atmospheric Humidity Using Global Positioning System Radio Occultation Data, Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, vol.21, issue.3, p.4015067, 2015.
DOI : 10.1061/(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0001309

C. Bouden and N. Ghrab, An adaptive thermal comfort model for the Tunisian context: a field study results, Energy and Buildings, vol.37, issue.9, pp.952-63, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.enbuild.2004.12.003

J. Bouyer, Modélisation et Simulation Des Microclimats Urbains-Étude de L'impact de L'aménagement Urbain Sur Les Consommations Énergétiques Des Bâtiments, 2009.

L. Braganca, Portugal SB07 Sustainable Construction, Materials and Practices: Challenge of the Industry for the New Millennium, 2007.

B. Ltd, Glazing and Thermal Performance in a Building Article http://www.level.org.nz/passive-design/glazing-and-glazing-units/glazing-options-for- temperature-control, 2016.

I. Capeluto and . Guedi, Energy performance of the self-shading building envelope, Energy and Buildings, vol.35, issue.3, pp.327-363, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0378-7788(02)00105-6

W. H. Carnahan and R. C. Larson, An analysis of an urban heat sink, Remote Sensing of Environment, vol.33, issue.1, pp.65-71, 1990.
DOI : 10.1016/0034-4257(90)90056-R

Y. A. Cengel, M. A. Boles, and M. Lacroix, Thermodynamique: Une Approche Pragmatique, 2014.

A. Chandrasekar, Basics of Atmospheric Science, 2013.

A. Changnon, Inadvertent Weather Modification in Urban Areas: Lessons for Global Climate Change, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol.73, issue.5, pp.619-646, 1992.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0477(1992)073<0619:IWMIUA>2.0.CO;2

S. A. Changnon, E. Kenneth, . Kunkel, C. Beth, and . Reinke, Impacts and Responses to the, 1995.

E. Chantoiseau, C. Migeon, G. Chasseriaux, and P. Bournet, Heat-pump dehumidifier as an efficient device to prevent condensation in horticultural greenhouses, Biosystems Engineering, vol.142, pp.27-41, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2015.11.011

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01257561

J. Chao, Global Model Confirms: Cool Roofs Can Offset Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Mitigate Global Warming | Berkeley Lab News Center, 2010.

. Chen, C. Mei-lien, W. Chen, J. Yeh, I. Huang et al., Heat Stress Evaluation and Worker Fatigue in a Steel Plant, AIHA Journal, vol.64, issue.3, pp.352-359, 2003.
DOI : 10.1080/15428110308984827

Y. Chen, T. Lin, and A. Matzarakis, Comparison of mean radiant temperature from field experiment and modelling: a case study in Freiburg, Germany, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, vol.31, issue.2, pp.535-551, 2014.
DOI : 10.1002/joc.2231

V. Cheng, E. Ng, and B. Givoni, Effect of envelope colour and thermal mass on indoor temperatures in hot humid climate, Solar Energy, vol.78, issue.4, pp.528-562, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.solener.2004.05.005

F. Ching, Building Construction Illustrated, 2014.
DOI : 10.1002/9781118786178

A. Christen and R. Vogt, Energy and radiation balance of a central European city, International Journal of Climatology, vol.24, issue.11, pp.1395-1421, 2004.
DOI : 10.1002/joc.1074

N. Chrysoulakis, T. Esch, J. Gastellu-etchegorry, C. S. Grimmond, E. Parlow et al., A novel approach for anthropogenic heat flux estimation from space, 2016 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 2014.
DOI : 10.1109/IGARSS.2016.7730768

J. Clarke, A. Yaneske, and . Pinney, The Harmonisation of Thermal Properties of Building Materials, 1990.

N. Clinton and P. Gong, MODIS detected surface urban heat islands and sinks: Global locations and controls, Remote Sensing of Environment, vol.134, pp.294-304, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.rse.2013.03.008

J. Coakley, REFLECTANCE AND ALBEDO, SURFACE, Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/B0-12-227090-8/00069-5

E. Conover, Turning for Furniture: Creating Furniture Parts on Your Lathe, 1996.

P. Cullen, A. French, and V. Jakeman, The Official Cambridge Guide to IELTS Student's Book, 2014.

. Designing-buildings and . Ltd, Operative Temperature The Construction Industry Knowledge Base, 2016.

D. Buildings-ltd, Solar Reflectance Index in the Built Environment The Construction Industry Knowledge Base, 2017.

D. Devadas and A. Lilly-rose, Urban Factors and the Intensity of Heat Island in the City of Chennai, The 7th International Conference on Urban Climate, 2009.

C. Deziel, The Main Factors That Cause the Air in Earth's Atmosphere to Move, 2017.

K. Dietrich, A Design for Architectural Education, 2004.

A. Dimoudi, S. Zoras, A. Kantzioura, X. Stogiannou, P. Kosmopoulos et al., Use of cool materials and other bioclimatic interventions in outdoor places in order to mitigate the urban heat island in a medium size city in Greece, Sustainable Cities and Society, vol.13, pp.89-96, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.scs.2014.04.003

. Dorer, J. Viktor, K. Allegrini, P. Orehounig, G. Moonen et al., Modelling the Urban Microclimate and Its Impact on the Energy Demand of Buildings and Building Clusters, Proceedings of BS 2013, pp.3483-3489, 2013.

L. Doulos, I. Santamouris, and . Livada, Passive cooling of outdoor urban spaces. The role of materials, Solar Energy, vol.77, issue.2, pp.231-280, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.solener.2004.04.005

. Dubai-municipality, Green Building Regulations & Specifications Government of Dubai, 2017.

C. Dunlop, Principles of Home Inspection: Systems & Standards, 2003.

F. Elaiab, Thermal Comfort Investigation of Multi-Storey Residential Buildings in Mediterranean Climate with Reference to Darnah, Libya, 2014.

F. M. Elaiab, Thermal Comfort Investigation of Multi-Storey Residential Buildings in Mediterranean Climate with Reference to Darnah, Libya, 2014.

S. El-khateeb, Interrelations between Preserved Natural Areas and Urban Environment, 2006.

M. Elnahas, The Effects of Urban Configuration on Urban Air Temperatures, Architectural Science Review, vol.14, issue.2, pp.135-173, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/0378-7788(88)90026-6

R. Emmanuel and E. Krüger, Urban heat island and its impact on climate change resilience in a shrinking city: The case of Glasgow, UK, Building and Environment, vol.53, pp.137-186, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.buildenv.2012.01.020

S. Emmitt and C. A. Gorse, Barry's Introduction to Construction of Buildings, 2014.

E. Erell, D. Pearlmutter, and T. Williamson, Urban Microclimate: Designing the Spaces Between Buildings, pp.27-68, 2012.

C. Escudero, K. Martin, A. Erkoreka, I. Flores, and J. M. Sala, Experimental thermal characterization of radiant barriers for building insulation, Energy and Buildings, vol.59, pp.62-72, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.enbuild.2012.12.043

M. Esther and L. Sagada, An Evaluation of Thermal Comfort Conditions in an Urban Entertainment Centre in Hot-Dry Climate of Nigeria, International Journal of Energy and Environmental Research, vol.2, issue.1, pp.55-74

M. Esther, . Mohammed, L. Musa, and . Sagada, An Evaluation Of Thermal Comfort Conditions In An Urban Entertainment Centre In Hot-Dry Climate Of Nigeria, International Journal of Energy and Environmental Research, vol.2, issue.1, pp.55-74, 2014.

M. Farag, Materials and Process Selection for Engineering Design, Third Edition, 2013.
DOI : 10.1201/b16047

K. Fasogbon, A. Wahaab, and M. Oyewola, Thermal Comfort Characteristics of Some Selected Building Materials in the Regional Setting of Ile-Ife, Nigeria, Journal of Natural Resources and Development, vol.05, pp.54-58, 2015.

S. Faulkner, Urbanization impacts on the structure and function of forested wetlands, Urban Ecosystems, vol.7, issue.2, pp.89-106, 2004.
DOI : 10.1023/B:UECO.0000036269.56249.66

J. Fenger, O. Hertel, and F. Palmgren, Urban Air Pollution -European Aspects, 2013.
DOI : 10.1007/978-94-015-9080-8

H. Feriadi and N. H. Wong, Thermal comfort for naturally ventilated houses in Indonesia, Energy and Buildings, vol.36, issue.7, pp.614-640, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.enbuild.2004.01.011

S. Ferrari and V. Zanotto, Building Energy Performance Assessment in Southern Europe, SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology, 2015.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-319-24136-4

. Ferro, Cool Colors and Eclipse Pigments, 2017.

W. L. Filho, K. Adamson, R. M. Dunk, U. M. Azeiteiro, S. Illingworth et al., Implementing Climate Change Adaptation in Cities and Communities: Integrating Strategies and Educational Approaches. Climate Change Management, 2016.

A. Gagge, . Pharo, L. Fobelets, and . Berglund, A Standard Predictive Index of Human Response to the Thermal Environment, ASHRAE Trans.;(United States), vol.92, 1986.

S. Gauthier, The Role of Environmental and Personal Variables in Influencing Thermal Comfort Indices Used in Building Simulation, Conference Proceedings: 13th Conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association (BS2013), pp.2320-2325, 2013.

S. Gauthier, Developing a Method to Monitor Thermal Discomfort Response Variability, 2015.

E. Ghisi and R. Massignani, Thermal performance of bedrooms in a multi-storey residential building in southern Brazil, Building and Environment, vol.42, issue.2, pp.730-772, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.buildenv.2005.10.026

R. Giridharan, Y. Lau, S. Ganesan, and B. Givoni, Urban design factors influencing heat island intensity in high-rise high-density environments of Hong Kong, Building and Environment, vol.42, issue.10, pp.3669-84, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.buildenv.2006.09.011

B. Givoni, Man, Climate and Architecture, pp.120-164, 1969.

B. Givoni, Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design, Canada, 1998.

B. Givoni, Comfort, climate analysis and building design guidelines, Energy and Buildings, vol.18, issue.1, pp.11-23, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/0378-7788(92)90047-K

G. Golany, Ethics and Urban Design: Culture, Form, and Environment, Canada, 1995.

J. Goulding, J. O. Lewis, and T. C. Steemers, Energy in Architecture: The European Passive Solar Handbook, 1992.

C. Grimmond and T. R. Oke, Aerodynamic Properties of Urban Areas Derived from Analysis of Surface Form, Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol.38, issue.9, pp.1262-1292, 1999.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0450(1999)038<1262:APOUAD>2.0.CO;2

T. Grondzik, G. Kwok, B. Stein, and S. Reynolds, Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings, 2014.

K. Guan, Surface and Ambient Air Temperatures Associated with Different Ground Material: A Case Study at the University of California, Environ. Sci, vol.196, pp.1-14, 2011.

D. Guha, S. K. , and R. Chowdhuri, The effect of surface roughness on the temperature at the contact between sliding bodies, Wear, vol.197, issue.1-2, pp.63-73, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/0043-1648(95)06833-3

R. J. Gurney, J. L. Foster, and C. L. Parkinson, Atlas of Satellite Observations Related to Global Change, 1993.

H. Harris, Thermal Conductivity Common Clay Masonry Material Southern Africa: The Clay Brick Association of Southern Africa by InterComm South Africa, 2016.

W. Harrison, R. Trotman, and G. Saunders, Roofs and Roofing L Performance, Diagnosis, Maintenance, Repair and the Avoidance of Defects, BRE Building Elements Series, 2000.

A. Hénon, P. G. Mestayer, J. P. Lagouarde, and J. A. Voogt, An urban neighborhood temperature and energy study from the CAPITOUL experiment with the SOLENE model, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, vol.2, issue.1-2, pp.177-96, 2012.
DOI : 10.1007/s00703-008-0320-9

A. Hénon, P. Mestayer, and D. Groleau, Thermo-Radiative Modeling and Energy Balance of the Urban Canopy: Relations between Simulated and Measurable Temperatures, The 7th Conference on Coastal Atmospheric and Oceanic Prediction and Processes Joint with 7th Symposium on the Urban Environment, 2007.

H. S. Hens, Applied Building Physics: Ambient Conditions, Building Performance and Material Properties, 2016.

C. Herrmann, S. Kara, S. Thiede, and T. Luger, Energy Efficiency in Manufacturing?Perspectives from Australia and Europe, Proceedings of the 17th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, pp.23-28, 2010.

D. Hillel, Environmental Soil Physics: Fundamentals, Applications, and Environmental Considerations, 1998.

B. Hirbo, Appropriate Construction Materials for Hot and Dry Climates, 2010.

C. Hogan and . Michael, Home Design, eoearth.org, 2010.

S. Houda, N. Zemmouri, R. Athmani, and R. Belarbi, Effect of Urban Morphology on Wind Flow Distribution in Dense Urban Areas, Revue Des Energies Renouvelables, vol.14, issue.1, pp.85-94, 2011.

M. Hove, E. Ngwerume, and C. Muchemwa, The Urban Crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Threat to Human Security and Sustainable Development, Stability: International Journal of Security and Development, vol.2, issue.1, 2013.
DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-8439-8

B. O. The and . Company, How to Build a Custom Home, Exterior Doors https://www.theboldcompany.com/how-to-build-a-custom-home-part-23-exterior-doors, 2010.

L. Howard, The Climate of London: Deduced from Meteorological Observations, Made at Different Places in the Neighbourhood of the Metropolis, 1818.

J. Hrebicek, G. Schimak, and R. Denzer, Environmental Software Systems. Frameworks of eEnvironment: 9th IFIP WG 5, 11 International Symposium, ISESS 2011 Proceedings, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01328525

J. Huang, J. G. Cedeño-laurent, and J. D. Spengler, CityComfort+: A simulation-based method for predicting mean radiant temperature in dense urban areas, Building and Environment, vol.80, pp.84-95, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.buildenv.2014.05.019

M. Humphreys and J. Nicol, Examining and Developing the Adaptive Relation between Climate and Thermal Comfort Indoors, Proceedings of Conference: Adapting to Change: New Thinking on Comfort Cumberland Lodge, pp.9-11, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.buildenv.2013.01.024

J. D. Husher, Facts & Myths Facing Today's World: Paints a Realistic Picture on the Key Topics of Today; Including Global Warming, AIDS, and Stem Cells. iUniverse, 2008.

A. Hwaish, Impact of Heat Exchange on Building Envelope in the Hot Climates, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, vol.5, issue.2, 2015.

D. Hyndman, Natural Hazards and Disasters, 2010.

A. Ibojo, Determination of Water Vapor Content of Gases by Measurement of Dew Point The Pennsylvania State University, 2013.

M. Idczak, D. Groleau, P. Mestayer, J. Rosant, and J. Sini, An application of the thermo-radiative model SOLENE for the evaluation of street canyon energy balance, Building and Environment, vol.45, issue.5, pp.1262-75, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.buildenv.2009.11.011

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01145095

O. O. Ifatimehin, J. O. Adeyemi, and O. A. Saliu, The Impact of Urban Micro?Climate Change on Human Comfort in Lokoja, Nigeria, Katsina Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, vol.3, issue.2, pp.93-104, 2013.

M. Ignatius, W. Hien, S. Jusuf, and D. Chung, Holistic Method on Performing Microclimate Analyses of an Urban Area in The Tropics, 2015.

P. Jain and P. Jain, Product Planning and Development of Bucket Type Strainer Used In Thermal Power Plant, IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, vol.3, issue.2, pp.29-35, 2012.
DOI : 10.9790/1684-0322935

V. James, Urban Heat Islands: Hotter Cities, Actionbioscience. Accessed, vol.12, pp.49-56, 2004.

M. Jedidi, A. Boulilaa, O. Benjeddou, and C. Soussi, Crumb Rubber Effect on Acoustic Properties of Self-Consolidating Concrete, Int. J. of Thermal & Environmental Engineering, vol.8, issue.2, pp.69-76, 2014.

M. Jedidia, A. Gargouri, and A. Daoud, Effect of Rubber Aggregates on the Thermophysical Properties of Self-Consolidating Concrete, Int. J. of Thermal & Environmental Engineering, vol.8, issue.1, pp.1-7, 2014.

. Jemaa, B. Abedelhak, S. Rafa, and N. Essounbouli, Estimation of Global Solar Radiation Using Three Simple Methods, Energy Procedia, vol.42, pp.406-415, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.egypro.2013.11.041

M. E. Kahn, Green Cities: Urban Growth and the Environment, 2007.

A. Kaklauskas, E. Kazimieras-zavadskas, S. Raslanas, and R. Ginevicius, Selection of low-e windows in retrofit of public buildings by applying multiple criteria method COPRAS: A Lithuanian case, Energy and Buildings, vol.38, issue.5, pp.454-62, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.enbuild.2005.08.005

D. Kannamma, Optimising Heat Gain by Building Materials through Landscape Elements, International Journal of Managment, IT and Engineering, vol.2, issue.5, pp.380-411, 2012.

S. Karra, L. Malki-epshtein, and M. Neophytou, The Dispersion of Traffic Related Pollutants Across a Non-Homogeneous Street Canyon, Procedia Environmental Sciences, vol.4, pp.25-34, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.proenv.2011.03.004

T. Kinouchi, T. Yoshinaka, N. Fukae, and M. Kanda, Development of Cool Pavement with Dark Colored High Albedo Coating, Target, vol.50, issue.40, p.40, 2003.

A. Kiss and D. Shelton, Manual of European Environmental Law, 1997.

L. Kleerekoper, M. Van-esch, and T. Salcedo, How to make a city climate-proof, addressing the urban heat island effect, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol.64, pp.30-38, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.resconrec.2011.06.004

M. Kolokotroni and R. Giridharan, Urban heat island intensity in London: An investigation of the impact of physical characteristics on changes in outdoor air temperature during summer, Solar Energy, vol.82, issue.11, pp.986-98, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.solener.2008.05.004

M. Kolokotroni, X. Ren, M. Davies, and A. Mavrogianni, London's urban heat island: Impact on current and future energy consumption in office buildings, Energy and Buildings, vol.47, pp.302-313, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.12.019

K. Y. Kondrat-'yev, Radiative Heat Exchange in the Atmosphere, 2013.

S. Konopacki and H. Akbari, Energy Savings for Heat-Island Reduction Strategies in Chicago and Houston (Including Updates for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City), 2002.
DOI : 10.2172/795970

M. Krarti, Weatherization and Energy Efficiency Improvement for Existing Homes: An Engineering Approach. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Series, 2016.

E. Krüger, D. Pearlmutter, and F. Rasia, Evaluating the impact of canyon geometry and orientation on cooling loads in a high-mass building in a hot dry environment, Applied Energy, vol.87, issue.6, pp.2068-78, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.apenergy.2009.11.034

K. Beodom, Beodom | Making of Amadeo II Underground Parking Walls, 2016.

A. Kumar and O. Singh, Advances in the Building Materials for Thermal Comfort and Energy Saving, Recent Patents on Engineering, vol.7, issue.3, pp.220-232, 2013.
DOI : 10.2174/18722121113076660005

L. Kumar, K. Andrew, E. Skidmore, and . Knowles, Modelling topographic variation in solar radiation in a GIS environment, International Journal of Geographical Information Science, vol.24, issue.5, pp.475-497, 1997.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49705021008

M. Kutz, Handbook of Materials Selection, 2002.
DOI : 10.1002/9780470172551

M. Kutz, Mechanical Engineers' Handbook Materials and Mechanical Design, 2005.

P. Latha, V. Darshana, and . Venugopal, Role of building material in thermal comfort in tropical climates????? A review, Journal of Building Engineering, vol.3, pp.104-113, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jobe.2015.06.003

P. Lavigne, P. Brejon, and F. , Architecture Climatique: Une Contribution Au Développement Durable, 1994.

T. Lee, J. Lee, and Z. Wang, Scaling of the urban heat island intensity using time-dependent energy balance, Urban Climate, vol.2, pp.16-24, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.uclim.2012.10.005

H. Levin, Physical Factors in the Indoor Environment, Occupational Medicine, vol.10, issue.1, p.59, 1995.

T. Lin and A. Matzarakis, Estimation of Outdoor Mean Radiant Temperature by Filed Experiment and Modelling for Human-Biometeorology Use, Proceedings of the 11th Annual Meeting of the European Meteorological Society, pp.9-19, 2011.

S. Lovejoy and D. Schertzer, The Weather and Climate: Emergent Laws and Multifractal Cascades, 2013.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9781139093811

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00805839

I. Lun, A. Mochida, and R. Ooka, Progress in Numerical Modelling for Urban Thermal Environment Studies, Advances in Building Energy Research, vol.24, issue.1, pp.147-88, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jweia.2007.02.023

L. Malys, Evaluation des impacts directs et indirects des façades et des toitures vegetales sur le comportement thermique des batiments, Nantes: Ecole Nationale, 2012.

L. Malys, M. Musy, and C. Inard, A hydrothermal model to assess the impact of green walls on urban microclimate and building energy consumption, Building and Environment, vol.73, issue.0, pp.187-97, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.buildenv.2013.12.012

L. Malys, M. Musy, and C. Inard, Microclimate and building energy consumption: study of different coupling methods, Advances in Building Energy Research, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.enbuild.2012.07.042

L. Malys, M. Musy, and C. Inard, Direct and Indirect Impacts of Vegetation on Building Comfort: A Comparative Study of Lawns, Green Walls and Green Roofs, Energies, vol.40, issue.1, p.32, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/S0378-7788(02)00006-3

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01583196

K. Manfred and T. Schmidt, Radiation Effects on Exterior Surfaces, Proceedings of the 8th Symposium on Building Physics in Nordic Countries, pp.207-212, 2008.

P. Manibhai, Thermal Comfort Techniques for Urban Poor's Housing, Low Energy Architecture Research Unit, vol.1, issue.4, pp.38-54, 2013.

R. Manivanan, Recycling of Industrial Effluents, 2006.

C. P. Marrengula, A. Vasco-nhabinde, and . Ubisse, The Challenges and the Way Forward for the Construction Industry in Mozambique, 2012.

A. Maureen and . Anulika, Assessment of Thermal Comfort in Hall of Residence: A Case Study of Bells University of Technology Female Silver Hall, B.Sc. Arch, 2016.

W. H. Mcadams, Heat Transmission, 1959.

C. Mcgee, Australian, 2013.

G. Mcgranahan, G. Benneh, and J. Songsore, Environmental Problems and the Urban Household in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area (GAMA)-Ghana, 1993.

L. W. Mckeen, Fluorinated Coatings and Finishes Handbook: The Definitive User's Guide, 2015.

F. Megri, A. C. Megri, and R. Djabri, An integrated fuzzy support vector regression and the particle swarm optimization algorithm to predict indoor thermal comfort, Indoor and Built Environment, vol.92, issue.8, pp.1248-1258, 2016.
DOI : 10.1109/4235.985692

. Merriam-webster-online and . Dictionary, Definition of Environment by Merriam-Webster, 2016.

. Webster, Dictionary and Thesaurus, p.23, 2016.

M. Office and -. , Microclimates Fact shee 14. United Kingdom, 2011.

R. Michael, Energy Balance The Physical Environment: An Introduction to Physical Geography, 2017.

F. Miguet and D. Groleau, A Daylight Simulation Tool Including Transmitted Direct And Diffuse Light Application To The Evaluation Of Daylighting Inside Glazed Intermediate Spaces, Seventh International IBPSA Conference-Building Simulation. Rio de Janeiro, 2001.

G. Mills, Luke Howard and the Climate of London, pp.153-57, 2008.

E. Mitleton-kelly, Co-Evolution of Intelligent Socio-Technical Systems: Modelling and Applications in Large Scale Emergency and Transport Domains, 2013.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-642-36614-7

K. C. Nelson, A. Margaret, J. E. Palmer, G. E. Pizzuto, P. L. Moglen et al., Forecasting the combined effects of urbanization and climate change on stream ecosystems: from impacts to management options, Journal of Applied Ecology, vol.13, issue.1, pp.154-63, 2009.
DOI : 10.1899/04-028.1

M. Nematchoua, J. A. Kameni, and . Orosa, Building construction materials effect in tropical wet and cold climates: A case study of office buildings in Cameroon, Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, vol.7, pp.55-65, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/j.csite.2016.01.007

H. Niizawa, Management of Urban Heat Environment and Water Resource Allocation Problems, Energy and ResourcesJournal of the Japan Society of Energy and Resources], vol.6, issue.2, pp.74-79, 1985.

Z. Nooraini, R. Ismail, and Z. Ahmad, Foamed Concrete: Potential Application in Thermal Insulation, MUCEET2009. Pahang, Malaysia, 2010.

N. Obi, The Influence of Vegetation on Microclimate in Hot Humid Tropical Environment: A Case of Enugu Urban, pp.28-38, 2014.

O. Ogwuda and . Ikechukwuka, Materials Science Appraisal of Recycled Construction Materials for Roadways, 2007.

T. R. Oke, Initial Guidance to Obtain Representative Meteorological Observations at Urban Sites, 2004.

T. R. Oke, The urban energy balance, Progress in Physical Geography, vol.9, issue.9, pp.471-508, 1988.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00215637

T. R. Oke, City size and the urban heat island, Atmospheric Environment (1967), vol.7, issue.8, pp.769-79, 1967.
DOI : 10.1016/0004-6981(73)90140-6

T. R. Oke, The energetic basis of the urban heat island, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.13, issue.455, pp.1-24, 1982.
DOI : 10.1002/j.1477-8696.1980.tb03484.x

T. R. Oke, R. A. Spronken-smith, C. S. Jáuregui, and . Grimmond, The energy balance of central Mexico City during the dry season, Atmospheric Environment, vol.33, issue.24-25, pp.24-25, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S1352-2310(99)00134-X

A. Olaniyan, K. Ayinla, and S. Odetoye, Building Envelope Vis-a-Vis Indoor Thermal Discomfort in Tropical Design: How Vulnerable Are the Constituent Elements, pp.1370-1379, 2013.

V. Olgyay, D. Lyndon, J. Reynolds, and K. Yeang, Design with Climate: Bioclimatic Approach to Architectural Regionalism, 1963.
DOI : 10.1515/9781400873685

H. Oostroom, Urban Heat Island Adaptation through Urban Planning and Design: The Struggle of the City of Los Angeles, NEURUS-Network of European and US Regional and Urban Studies, 2011.

M. Ozel, J. M. Palmer, S. Kirby, and . Chapman, Thermal Performance and Optimum Insulation Thickness of Building Walls with Different Structure Materials Direct Calculation of Mean Radiant Temperature Using Radiant Intensities, SET 2010 Special Issue In . National Inst. of Standards and Technology, vol.31, issue.17, pp.3854-63, 2000.

D. Palomba, G. E. Vazquez, and M. F. Díaz, Prediction of elongation at break for linear polymers, Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, vol.139, pp.121-152, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.chemolab.2014.09.009

L. Parafianowicz, Hongzhu Housing Sales Centre by Lab Modus Frame Publishers, 2012.

R. Pendleton and M. Tuttle, Manual on Experimental Methods for Mechanical Testing of Composites, 2012.
DOI : 10.1007/978-94-009-1129-1

G. Pérez, J. Coma, I. Martorell, and L. Cabeza, Vertical Greenery Systems (VGS) for energy saving in buildings: A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.39, pp.139-65, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.rser.2014.07.055

R. Perez, R. Seals, and J. Michalsky, All-weather model for sky luminance distribution???Preliminary configuration and validation, Solar Energy, vol.50, issue.3, pp.235-245, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0038-092X(93)90017-I

K. Pichatwatana, Weather Responsive Internal Roof Shading Systems for Existing Long- Span Glazed Roof over Large Naturally Ventilated and Air-Conditioned Pedestrian Concourses in the Tropics, 2016.

H. Poirazis, Single Skin Glazed Office Buildings-Energy Use and Indoor Climate Simulations, 2005.

G. Prinsloo and R. Dobson, Automatic Solar Tracking Sun Tracking Satellite Tracking Rastreador Solar Seguimento Solar Seguidor Solar Automático de Seguimiento Solar: Solar Tracking, Inseguimento Solare, High Precision Solar Position Algorithms, Programs, Software and Source-Code for Computing the Solar Vector, Solar Coordinates & Sun Angles in Microprocessor, PLC, Arduino, PIC and PC-Based Sun Tracking Devices or Dynamic Sun Following Hardware, 2015.

L. Probst, E. Monfardini, L. Frideres, D. Cedola, and P. Luxembourg, Smart Living: Smart Construction Products and Processes, 0190.

R. K. Rajput, A Textbook of, Electrical Engineering Materials, 2004.

I. Rakos and A. Antohe, Environmental Cost - An Environment Management Accounting Component, International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting, Finance and Management Sciences, vol.4, issue.4, pp.166-75, 2014.
DOI : 10.6007/IJARAFMS/v4-i4/1302

N. Ramamurthy, R. Narasimhan, and K. Divya, World Class Human Beings Use Their Stumbling Blocks as Stepping Stones, A Journal of A N Prakash CPMC, pp.1-14, 2011.

A. Rashwan, O. Farag, and . Moustafa, Energy performance analysis of integrating building envelopes with nanomaterials, International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, vol.2, issue.2, pp.209-232, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2013.12.001

. Reach-resource and . Centre, Mosul City, Humanitarian Situation Overview REACH Resource Centre, 2015.

P. Reddy, Climate Resilient Agriculture for Ensuring Food Security, 2014.
DOI : 10.1007/978-81-322-2199-9

B. Resnik, Urban Sprawl, Smart Growth, and Deliberative Democracy, American Journal of Public Health, vol.100, issue.10, pp.1852-56, 2010.
DOI : 10.2105/AJPH.2009.182501

URL : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2936977/pdf

A. Rizwan, . Memon, Y. Leung, L. I. Dennis, and . Chunho, A review on the generation, determination and mitigation of Urban Heat Island, Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol.20, issue.1, pp.120-148, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/S1001-0742(08)60019-4

S. M. Roberts, T. R. Oke, J. A. Voogt, C. S. Grimmond, and A. Lemonsu, Energy Storage in a European City Center, Fifth International Conference on Urban Climate, 2003.

M. Robitu, Etude de L'interaction Entre Le Bâtiment et Son Environnement Urbain: Influence, 2005.

P. Romero-lankao, Urban Areas and Climate Change: Review of Current Issues and Trends Commissioned Issues Paper for UN-Habitat " Cities and Climate Change: Review of Current Issues and Trends, 2008.

K. Roof, Public Health: Seattle and King County's Push for the Built Environment, Journal of Environmental Health, vol.71, issue.1, p.24, 2008.

A. Rosca and D. Rosca, Considerations on the Influence of Micro Urban Heat Islands to the Temperature-Humidity Index in Craiova/Consideratii Privind Influenta Insulelor de Cadura Urbane Asupra Indicelui Temperatura-Umiditate Din Craiova, In Forum Geografic, vol.14, p.41, 2015.

A. H. Rosenfeld, H. Akbari, J. Joseph, M. Romm, and . Pomerantz, Cool communities: strategies for heat island mitigation and smog reduction, Energy and Buildings, vol.28, issue.1, pp.51-62, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0378-7788(97)00063-7

C. Rosenzweig, S. R. Gaffin, and L. Parshall, Green Roofs in the New York Metropolitan Region: Research Report, 2006.

M. Roth, Urban Heat Islands In Handbook of Environmental Fluid Dynamics, Volume Two: Systems, Pollution, Modeling, and Measurements, 2012.

F. Roure, G. Besuievsky, and G. Patow, Hierarchical Radiosity for Procedural Urban Environments, In UDMV, pp.7-12, 2014.

T. Safikhani, A. M. Abdullah, M. Dilshan-remaz-ossen, and . Baharvand, Abstract, Environmental and Climate Technologies, vol.52, issue.1, pp.5-11, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jenvp.2010.11.002

D. J. Sailor, L. Lu, and H. Fan, Estimating Urban Anthropogenic Heating Profiles and Their Implications for Heat Island Development, In INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON URBAN CLIMATE, vol.15, 2003.

M. Santamouris, Sustainable Cities Realistic Targets for an Utopian Subject, The Green Cities Conference, 2002.

M. Santamouris, Advances in Building Energy Research, p.148, 2012.

M. Santamouris, Using cool pavements as a mitigation strategy to fight urban heat island???A review of the actual developments, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.26, pp.224-240, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.rser.2013.05.047

M. Santamouris, . Gaitani, . Spanou, . Saliari, . Giannopoulou et al., Using cool paving materials to improve microclimate of urban areas ??? Design realization and results of the flisvos project, Building and Environment, vol.53, pp.128-136, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.buildenv.2012.01.022

A. Santoso, Green Roof of Nanyang Technological University in Singapore, 2008.

T. Satyanarayana, B. N. Johri, and A. Prakash, Microorganisms in Environmental Management: Microbes and Environment, 2012.

A. Sayigh and A. H. Marafia, Chapter 1???Thermal comfort and the development of bioclimatic concept in building design, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.2, issue.1-2, pp.3-24, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S1364-0321(98)00009-4

T. A. Schwartz, Water in Exterior Building Walls: Problems and Solutions, 1991.
DOI : 10.1520/STP1107-EB

C. Schwinge, Knowing Your Buildings: A Firefighter's Reference Guide: A Firefighter's Reference Guide, 2009.

P. Shahmohamadi, A. Ani, N. Abdullah, K. Maulud, M. Tahir et al., The Conceptual Framework on Formation of Urban Heat Island in Tehran Metropolitan, Iran: A Focus on Urbanization Factor, European Journal of Scientific Research, 2009.

A. Shakir and . Khaliq, Thermal Comfort Modelling of an Open Space (Sport Stadium), Citeseer, 2006.

E. Sharifi and S. Lehmann, Comparative Analysis of Surface Urban Heat Island Effect in Central Sydney, Journal of Sustainable Development, vol.7, issue.3, p.23, 2014.
DOI : 10.5539/jsd.v7n3p23

DOI : 10.4090/juee.2015.v9n1.003011

A. Sharma, V. V. Tyagi, C. R. Chen, and D. Buddhi, Review on thermal energy storage with phase change materials and applications, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.13, issue.2, pp.318-363, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.rser.2007.10.005

L. Shashua?bar, Y. Tzamir, and M. E. Hoffman, Thermal effects of building geometry and spacing on the urban canopy layer microclimate in a hot-humid climate in summer, International Journal of Climatology, vol.14, issue.16, pp.1729-1771, 2004.
DOI : 10.1002/joc.1092

Z. Shen, B. Wang, G. Cui, and Z. Zhang, Flow pattern and pollutant dispersion over three dimensional building arrays, Atmospheric Environment, vol.116, pp.202-217, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.06.022

A. Shim, Green Buildings Mitigate Climate Change Sustainable Investment Group. https://www.sigearth.com/green-buildings-mitigate-climate-change, 2016.

J. R. Simpson and E. G. Mcpherson, The effects of roof albedo modification on cooling loads of scale model residences in Tucson, Arizona, Energy and Buildings, vol.25, issue.2, pp.127-164, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0378-7788(96)01002-X

A. Slom?ek, E. Jungmannová, and M. Kotasová, The Challenges of Development in Post- Conflict Societies: Iraq's Reconstruction, The Academic Council on the United Nations System (ACUNS), 2012.

K. Söderholm and M. , Differentiate between Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity, and Explain Why Thermal Diffusivity May Be More Important to Consider from a Dental Point of View, 2000.

V. Soebarto, Analysis of Indoor Performance of Houses Using Rammed Earth Walls, In Building Simulation, pp.1530-1567, 2009.

. Song, K. Bonggeun, and . Park, Contribution of Greening and High-Albedo Coatings to Improvements in the Thermal Environment in Complex Urban Areas Advances in Meteorology, 2015.

M. Stathopoulou, C. Cartalis, and A. Andritsos, Assessing the Thermal Environment of Major Cities in Greece, Proc. 1st International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Cooling for the Built Environment, 2005.

M. Stathopoulou, A. Synnefa, C. Cartalis, M. Santamouris, T. Karlessi et al., A surface heat island study of Athens using high-resolution satellite imagery and measurements of the optical and thermal properties of commonly used building and paving materials, International Journal of Sustainable Energy, vol.28, issue.1-3, pp.1-3, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/0033-0655(92)85001-C

A. Strahler, Introducing Physical Geography 5th Edition with National Geographic EarthPulse Set, 2010.

I. Strangeways, |. Urban-eden, and . Unc-charlotte, Measuring the Natural Environment, 2003.

O. Style and R. Grove, The Maya Petén Stove: Design and Construction of a Wood Cooking Stove, 2014.

Y. Sun, J. Wang, R. Zhang, R. R. Gillies, Y. Xue et al., Air temperature retrieval from remote sensing data based on thermodynamics, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, vol.80, issue.1, pp.37-48, 2005.
DOI : 10.1007/s00704-004-0079-y

A. O. Surendranathan, An Introduction to Ceramics and Refractories, Boca Raton, 2014.

W. J. Sutherland, Ecological Census Techniques: A Handbook, 2006.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9780511790508

A. Synnefa, T. Karlessi, N. Gaitani, M. Santamouris, C. Papakatsikas et al., Measurement of Optical Properties and Thermal Performance of Coloured Thin Layer Asphalt Samples and Evaluation of Their Impact on the Urban Environment, The Countermeasures to Urban Heat Islands Conference, 2009.

A. Synnefa, M. Santamouris, and K. Apostolakis, On the development, optical properties and thermal performance of cool colored coatings for the urban environment, Solar Energy, vol.81, issue.4, pp.488-97, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.solener.2006.08.005

A. Synnefa, M. Santamouris, and I. Livada, A study of the thermal performance of reflective coatings for the urban environment, Solar Energy, vol.80, issue.8, pp.968-81, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.solener.2005.08.005

. Papakatsikas, Experimental Testing of Cool Colored Thin Layer Asphalt and Estimation of Its Potential to Improve the Urban Microclimate, Building and Environment, vol.46, issue.1, pp.38-44, 2011.

S. V. Szokolay, Introduction to Architectural Science: The Basis of Sustainable Design, 2014.

Á. Sz?cs, T. Gál, and H. Andrade, Comparison of measured and simulated Mean Radiant Temperature. Case Study In Lisbon (Portugal), Finisterra, vol.49, issue.98, 2014.
DOI : 10.18055/Finis6469

H. Taha, Urban climates and heat islands: albedo, evapotranspiration, and anthropogenic heat, Energy and Buildings, vol.25, issue.2, pp.99-103, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0378-7788(96)00999-1

A. Tahir, A. Ahmad, Q. Muhammad, . Mahmood, Z. Sheikh-saeed-ahmad et al., Impact of rapid urbanization on microclimate of urban areas of Pakistan, Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health, vol.102, issue.3, pp.299-306, 2015.
DOI : 10.1007/s00704-010-0263-1

M. Taleghani, Dwelling on Courtyards, 2015.

Y. Tamura and K. Kondo, Wind Loads, AIJ Recommendations for Loads on Buildings, 2015.

M. Targhi, S. Zabeti, and . Van-dessel, Potential Contribution of Urban Developments to Outdoor Thermal Comfort Conditions: The Influence of Urban Geometry and Form in, Defining the Future of Sustainability and Resilience in Design, Engineering and Construction, vol.118, pp.1153-61, 2015.

R. Thomas, Environmental Design: An Introduction for Architects and Engineers, 2006.
DOI : 10.4324/9780203478004

S. Thorsson, F. Lindberg, I. Eliasson, and B. Holmer, Different methods for estimating the mean radiant temperature in an outdoor urban setting, International Journal of Climatology, vol.14, issue.14, pp.1983-1993, 2007.
DOI : 10.1080/00038628.1999.9696845

G. N. Tiwari and A. Tiwari, Handbook of Solar Energy: Theory, Analysis and Applications, 2016.
DOI : 10.1007/978-981-10-0807-8

B. Torrey, Urbanization: An Environmental Force to Be Reckoned with, Population Reference Bureau, 2004.

G. Treloar, R. Fay, B. Ilozor, and P. Love, Building materials selection: greenhouse strategies for built facilities, Facilities, vol.19, issue.3/4, pp.139-50, 2001.
DOI : 10.1108/02632779910291877

M. Ubbelohde, G. Susan, R. Loisos, and . Mcbride, Advanced Comfort Criteria & Annotated Bibliography on Adapted Comfort, Sacramento: California Energy Commission, 2003.

M. Ullah and S. Wee, Impact of Environmental Issues in Property Marketing Strategy, European Journal of Business and Management, vol.5, pp.87-92, 2013.

J. Unger, T. Gál, J. Rakonczai, L. Musci, J. Szatman et al., Air Temperature versus Surface Temperature in Urban Environment, 7th International Conference on Urban Climate, 2009.

S. Ser, World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision, Highlights, United Nations, issue.352, 2014.

U. Epa, Climate Change and Heat Islands Overviews and Factsheets. February 16. https://www.epa.gov/heat-islands/climate-change-and-heat-islands, 2017.

U. Faculties, Design in Brickwork, 2017.

V. Reddy, B. V. , and K. Jagadish, Embodied energy of common and alternative building materials and technologies, Energy and Buildings, vol.35, issue.2, pp.129-166, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0378-7788(01)00141-4

R. Ventura, A Modified Double Skin Façade for the Desert Climate Integrated with Evaporative Cooling Spray, 2009.

J. Vinet, Contribution À La Modélisation Thermo, 2000.

A. Voogt, Urban Heat Islands, In Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change, pp.660-666, 2002.
DOI : 10.1029/2010GL042845

J. Voogt, How Researchers Measure Urban Heat Islands Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). https://www.epa.gov/sites, pp.2014-2021, 2000.

L. Wadsö, J. Karlsson, and K. Tammo, Thermal Properties of Concrete with Various Aggregates Research Paper, 2012.

K. Wakili, L. Wullschleger, and E. Hugi, Thermal behaviour of a steel door frame subjected to the standard fire of ISO 834: Measurements, numerical simulation and parameter study, Fire Safety Journal, vol.43, issue.5, pp.325-358, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.firesaf.2007.11.003

Y. Wang and H. Akbari, Development and application of ???thermal radiative power??? for urban environmental evaluation, Sustainable Cities and Society, vol.14, pp.316-338, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.scs.2014.07.003

A. Watts, New Urban Heat Island Study Shows Surprising Variation in Air Temperaturesnew-urban-heat-island-study-shows- surprising-variation-in-air-temperatures, 2015.

P. Weihs, H. Staiger, B. Tinz, E. Batchvarova, H. Rieder et al., The uncertainty of UTCI due to uncertainties in the determination of radiation fluxes derived from measured and observed meteorological data, International Journal of Biometeorology, vol.111, issue.D7, pp.537-555, 2012.
DOI : 10.1029/2005JD006118

D. White, Environmental Impact of Foundation Construction, 2016.

J. Wiernga, Representative roughness parameters for homogeneous terrain, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol.37, issue.4, pp.323-363, 1993.
DOI : 10.1080/07055900.1988.9649300

K. Williams, Reducing Sprawl and Delivering an Urban Renaissance in England: Are These Aims Possible given Current Attitudes to Urban Living, Urban Sprawl in Western Europe and the United States, pp.37-54, 2004.

E. Wong, H. Akbari, R. Bell, and D. Cole, Urban Heat Island Basics In Heat Island Compendium, 2008.

N. Wong, A. Y. Hien, K. Tan, N. C. Puay-yok-tan, and . Wong, Energy simulation of vertical greenery systems, Energy and Buildings, vol.41, issue.12, pp.1401-1409, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.enbuild.2009.08.010

W. Wu, Research on Various Building Materials for Structural Components, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Civil, Materials and Environmental Sciences, 2015.
DOI : 10.2991/cmes-15.2015.135

Y. Xu and D. D. Chung, Cement of high specific heat and high thermal conductivity, obtained by using silane and silica fume as admixtures, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.30, issue.7, pp.1175-78, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0008-8846(00)00296-9

H. Yahya, M. Abed, and . Samad, The Role of Building Materials in Architectural Design, Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol.679, pp.6-13, 2014.
DOI : 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.679.6

J. Yang, Z. Wang, and . Kaloush, Environmental impacts of reflective materials: Is high albedo a ???silver bullet??? for mitigating urban heat island?, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.47, pp.830-843, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.rser.2015.03.092

Q. Yang, C. Liu, . Shu, . Mmereki, X. Hossain et al., Impact Analysis of Window-Wall Ratio on Heating and Cooling Energy Consumption of Residential Buildings in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone in China, Journal of Engineering, vol.34, issue.7, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.02.042

D. Yinfei, W. Shengyue, and Z. Jian, Cooling asphalt pavement by a highly oriented heat conduction structure, Energy and Buildings, vol.102, pp.187-96, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.05.020

B. Yu, Z. Chen, P. Shang, and J. Yang, Study on the influence of albedo on building heat environment in a year-round, Energy and Buildings, vol.40, issue.5, pp.945-51, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.enbuild.2007.07.009

J. Yu, X. Xu, and L. Tian, Effect of Envelope Design on Energy Consumption Respect to EETP Index, 2011 International Conference on Computer Distributed Control and Intelligent Environmental Monitoring, 2011.
DOI : 10.1109/CDCIEM.2011.256

A. Zarkesh, A. Moradchelleh, and E. Khnlari, Region Based Classification of Design and Construction Consistent with Climate, Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, vol.11, issue.1, pp.66-76, 2012.

J. Zhan, Impacts of Land-Use Change on Ecosystem Services, 2015.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-662-48008-3

W. Zhan, W. Ju, S. Hai, G. Ferguson, J. Quan et al., Satellite-Derived Subsurface Urban Heat Island, Environmental Science & Technology, vol.48, issue.20, pp.12134-12140, 2014.
DOI : 10.1021/es5021185

L. Zhang and Q. Meng, Near ground air temperature calculation model based on heat transfer of vertical turbulent and horizontal air flow, Journal of Central South University, vol.13, issue.1, pp.721-747, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.03.047

Z. Zhang and . Jun, Goals and Operation of Green Building, Applied Mechanics and Materials, pp.1706-1715, 2013.
DOI : 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.438-439.1706

S. Zoras, A. Tsermentselis, P. Kosmopoulos, and A. Dimoudi, Evaluation of the application of cool materials in urban spaces: A case study in the center of Florina, Sustainable Cities and Society, vol.13, pp.223-252, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.scs.2014.01.007

R. Emmanuel and E. Krüger, Urban heat island and its impact on climate change resilience in a shrinking city: The case of Glasgow, UK, Building and Environment, vol.53, pp.137-186, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.buildenv.2012.01.020

S. Ser, World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision, Highlights, United Nations, issue.352, 2014.

J. Voogt, How Researchers Measure Urban Heat Islands Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). https://www.epa.gov/sites, pp.2014-2021, 2000.

E. Wong, H. Akbari, R. Bell, and D. Cole, Urban Heat Island Basics In Heat Island Compendium, 2008.

A. Zarkesh, A. Moradchelleh, and E. Khnlari, Region Based Classification of Design and Construction Consistent with Climate, Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, vol.11, issue.1, pp.66-76, 2012.