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Contribution to the Study of the Impact of Building Materials on the Urban Heat Island and the Energy Demand of Buildings

Abstract : In this century, the world has already witnessed the biggest increase in its population in human history, which led to the increase of the use of the land and shrinking green areas. The main concern of the present thesis is the city which is characterized by higher nighttime temperature compared to rural areas. This phenomenon is known as an urban heat island (UHI). UHI leads to degraded comfort conditions both outdoor and indoor, and as a result, higher energy consumption for cooling. One of the main reasons for the UHI is the materials used for building envelope and urban areas. Many attempts have been made to avoid UHI by using a new type of materials such as using materials with high solar reflectance. In addition, these types of materials help minimize energy consumption if used on an urban scale. In our research, we address the building envelope design with respect to its main types of construction materials as well as its layer design and its shape to mitigate the urban heat island and achieve energy consumption reduction. The work is applied on one of the important residential complexes in Mosul city – Iraq, which will be constructed in many cities in Iraq. The weather of the Mosul city is characterized by hot semi-arid climate. In summer, the climate is dry and extremely hot, whereas it is very cold and the temperatures are down to below zero in winter. The main objective of this research is to propose an appropriate building envelope design and design strategy which provides high thermal performance regarding the exterior and interior surface temperature, high-level of indoor thermal comfort with minimum energy needed, reduce the air temperature difference between the city and its surrounding rural area. It tackles some important questions that are related to the case study: What is the relation between the building envelope design and the following aspects: 1. The external surfaces temperature of buildings and urban surfaces which lead to raise the air temperature, and finally contribute to the UHI phenomenon, 2. The indoor surfaces temperature of buildings which influence the indoor thermal comfort and the energy needed to maintain this level of comfort? To answer the research questions, simulations have been achieved by using Solene-microclimat. From simulation results, it is shown that it is possible to find different combinations of materials, forms and surface coatings to both to reduce the interior and exterior surfaces temperature and consequently, maintain indoor and outdoor thermal comfort. We also show that the strategy can be different depending on the surface exposure to the sun and the interaction between surfaces. We propose a methodology to find the best combination depending on the case study.
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Submitted on : Monday, October 16, 2017 - 3:17:10 PM
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Bisam Al-Hafiz. Contribution to the Study of the Impact of Building Materials on the Urban Heat Island and the Energy Demand of Buildings. Environmental Engineering. ensa nantes, 2017. English. ⟨tel-01617403⟩

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