Droit naturel, sensualisme et libre-échange : l'économie politique de Gabriel Bonnot de Mably (1709-1785)

Abstract : The place assigned to Gabriel Bonnot de Mably (1709-1785) in contemporary historiography is ambiguous. He is portrayed as a main influence of the French Revolution then as a precursor to the communist doctrine. Recently, the Cambridge School works' and in particular Pocock's works led to a consensus: Mably was the archetype of classical republicanism in France in 18th century. The aim of this thesis is to examine the membership of Mably in this republican tradition taking into account two fundamental elements of his thought: i) his connection with Vincent de Gournay and the "science of commerce"; ii) the influences of modern natural law and in particular that of John Locke. This leads to reassess the controversy between Mably and Physiocrats. He seems close to accepting the Physiocratie argument for a society based on self-interest and individual calculation. But only a republican solution, the participation in the collective life of every citizen, is able to secure the theory, called liberal, of natural law. His opposition to the liberalization of grain tracte results from a defense of the "science of commerce" i.e. a framed free trade. Thus, paying particular attention to Mably's intellectual influences particularly those of Locke and Gournay, this thesis highlights a new interpretative grid, a rniddle position, in which the republican language of Mably secures his theory of natural law.
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Julie Ferrand. Droit naturel, sensualisme et libre-échange : l'économie politique de Gabriel Bonnot de Mably (1709-1785). Economies et finances. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PA010026⟩. ⟨tel-01614335⟩

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