Manipulation de particules et génération de vortex par ondes acoustiques de surface en géométrie microfluidique

Abstract : The focus of this PhD thesis was on particles and fluid handling through acoustic forces, at a very small scale. For this purpose, we built a micro-system based on surface acoustic waves emitted from interdigitated electrodes on a lithium niobate piezoelectric substrate. Those waves then leak into a fluid contained in a microfluidic cavity, at a frequency of 37 MHz, leading to 100 µm wavelengths.If two stationnary waves are emitted perpendicularly and at the same frequency, we theoretically and experimentally show evidence of interferences that can, depending on the time phase shift between them, nto only alter the positions of pressure nodes and antinodes in the acoustic cavity, but also give birth to acoustic vortices which axis is normal to the substrate surface.We theoretically show that those vortices come from the special behaviour of acoustic streaming due to a moving surface. Then, while injecting microparticles in the cavity, we measure angular velocities of a few rad/s. Those vortices spatial disposition follows a half-wavelength period, and their rotation alternates between neighbours: clockwise or anticlockwise. We identify a complex dynamic concerning their 3D structure, since small particles tend to aggregate in vertical columns in the center of the vortex because of radiation forces, with a vertical modulation in the height of the cavity, in good agreement with theoretical predictions.When 10 µm large particles are used instead, we observe individual rotations, even for spherical objects, with higher rotation velocities. We believe those observations to be the first evidence of an acoustic net torque exerted on micro-objects such as biological cells or beads stemming from surface acoustic waves, thus a small scale equivalent of acoustic torques described by Busse and Wang in 1981.This manuscript develops a detailed description of both electric and microfuidic devices, giving the successive steps leading to a lab on chip designed to generate acoustic forces and torques at once, and also the method for qualifying and quantifying electrically and optically its performances.
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Ianis Bernard. Manipulation de particules et génération de vortex par ondes acoustiques de surface en géométrie microfluidique. Mécanique [physics]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016GREAY015⟩. ⟨tel-01599244⟩

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