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Développement de matériaux innovants à base d’élastomère de silicone pour l’échantillonnage passif de pesticides dans les eaux de surface et de subsurface

Abstract : Time integrative passive sampling is more and more accepted as an alternative to grab sampling for measurement of organic micropollutants concentrations in aquatic environment. This technique offers the advantage to provide a concentration integrated over the deployment period of the passive sampler and to reduce limit of quantification by combining sampling and in situ pre-concentration steps. The main limitation of passive sampling is the selectivity of the receiving phase for a restricted class of contaminants (hydrophobic or hydrophilic). In this way, we need to deploy several passive samplers for sampling of pesticides covering a wide range of polarities. The aim of this thesis was to develop a receiving phase for passive sampling of pesticides in a single step in aquatic environment.We selected and developed materials for sorption of 28 pesticides with varied physicochemical properties by laboratory tests. The two selected and studied materials were a silicone rubber and a porous copolymer (Oasis ® HLB). Indeed, we shown that silicone rubber have strong affinity for hydrophobic pesticides but they also accumulate polar pesticides. We identified different sorption properties of silicone rubbers owing to their formulation and a possible adsorption mechanism for some pesticides. The composite material developed had mechanical properties adapted for a direct exposition in the aquatic environment and accumulates a range of pesticides expanded for more polar pesticides. These two materials were then shaped as rods for a simple in situ deployment and recovery of pesticides in laboratory. They have been calibrated as passive samplers by studying the impact of flow velocity on uptake kinetic parameters. In situ applications of passive samplers in surface and subsurface waters made it possible to calculate time integrated concentrations of pesticides over a duration exposure of one week. Moreover, we detected organosphorous insecticides underquantified by other techniques of water sampling. They also showed a capacity to integrate short peak contamination of pesticides in various agricultural contexts
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Alexis Martin. Développement de matériaux innovants à base d’élastomère de silicone pour l’échantillonnage passif de pesticides dans les eaux de surface et de subsurface. Etudes de l'environnement. Université de Lyon, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LYSE1284⟩. ⟨tel-01598873⟩

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